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Table 2 Odds ratios for breast cancer associated with smoking variables stratified by SULT1A1 genotype

From: SULT1A1 genotype, active and passive smoking, and breast cancer risk by age 50 years in a German case–control study

  SULT1A1*1/*1 genotype SULT1A1*2 allele carriera
Variable Cases (n = 198) Controls (n = 374) ORb (95% CI) Cases (n = 221) Controls (n = 510) ORb (95% CI)
Never active 86 159 1 (ref) 88 209 1 (ref)
Ever active 112 215 0.92 (0.63–1.34) 133 301 1.01 (0.73–1.42)
Never active/passivec, d 20 56 1 (ref) 19 57 1 (ref)
Former active 44 94 1.23 (0.64–2.36) 59 157 1.11 (0.60–2.06)
Current active 68 121 1.44 (0.76–2.71) 74 144 1.51 (0.82–2.78)
Average cigarettes per dayc, e
>0–9 42 106 1.06 (0.55–2.03) 52 154 0.99 (0.54–1.84)
10–19 56 73 2.12 (1.10–4.07) 60 99 1.75 (0.94–3.25)
20+ 14 34 1.05 (0.45–2.46) 20 48 1.09 (0.51–2.32)
Duration of smokingc, d
1–15 years 36 80 1.19 (0.61–2.34) 46 145 0.97 (0.52–1.82)
16+ years 76 135 1.44 (0.77–2.69) 87 156 1.62 (0.89–2.95)
Age at first cigarettec, d
9–15 years 21 47 1.09 (0.51–2.35) 20 63 0.84 (0.40–1.79)
16–18 years 56 109 1.33 (0.70–2.52) 70 145 1.42 (0.77–2.62)
19+ years 35 59 1.51 (0.75–3.05) 43 93 1.42 (0.74–2.72)
Pack-yearsc, e
>0–10 59 129 1.22 (0.65–2.27) 76 191 1.15 (0.64–2.07)
11+ 53 84 1.77 (0.91–3.42) 56 110 1.43 (0.77–2.67)
Passive smokingf
No 20 57 1 (ref) 19 57 1 (ref)
Yes 66 102 1.69 (0.89–3.21) 69 152 1.40 (0.74–2.64)
Duration of passive exposure in adulthoodf, g, h
1–13 years 29 40 1.91 (0.91–4.00) 33 70 1.47 (0.72–2.98)
14+ years 32 47 1.66 (0.79–3.48) 29 61 1.47 (0.70–3.10)
Cumulative lifetime exposure (in hours/day-years)f, g, i
1–55 22 49 1.13 (0.52–2.38) 37 76 1.76 (0.89–3.50)
56+ 43 52 2.12 (1.06–4.25) 32 71 1.39 (0.68–2.83)
  1. aIncludes SULT1A1*1/*2 and SULT1A1*2/*2 genotypes. bOdds ratios (ORs) stratified for age by 5-year intervals; additional adjustment was made for first-degree family history (yes/no), breastfeeding (total number of months) and body mass index (weight [kg]/ height [m]2) as continuous variables, parity (0, 1–2, 3+ children), alcohol consumption (0, 1–18, 19+ g/day), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal, unknown) and education (low, intermediate, high) as categorical variables. cReference group comprises never active/never passive smokers; category of passive smokers included in the models. dData missing for one control individual. eData missing for three control individuals and one case. fEver active smokers are excluded from the analysis; reference group consists of women not exposed to passive smoke. gDichotomization according to median of nonsmoking control individuals. hCategory of subjects only exposed during childhood is included in the model. iSum of hours/day-years for the sources partner, work and childhood, whereby childhood hours/day-years were divided by the number of smokers to avoid overlapping of exposures; data missing for one case and six control individuals.