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Table 4 Malondialdehyde levels and mammographic density

From: Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity, mammographic density, and oxidative stress: a cross-sectional study

     Quartiles of MDA: mean percentage density (95% confidence interval)  
  MDA1β (SE) F P Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
Premenopausal (n = 146)3         
   Serum MDA (μmol/l) 0.57 (0.46) 1.52 0.22 26.1 (17.7–36.1) 25.7 (17.0–36.1) 27.2 (18.9–36.9) 26.3 (18.1–36.0) 0.89
   Serum MDA adjusted for antioxidants (μmol/l)2 0.12 (0.51) 0.06 0.81 28.4 (19.3–39.1) 25.8 (17.0–36.5) 23.6 (15.7–33.0) 22.9 (15.0–32.6) 0.26
   Total urinary MDA (μmol/day) 0.24 (0.32) 0.60 0.44 23.5 (15.5–33.2) 27.9 (18.5–39.2) 25.3 (17.6–34.4) 26.9 (18.5–36.8) 0.61
   Total urinary MDA adjusted for antioxidants (μmol/day) 0.17 (0.33) 0.27 0.61 21.9 (14.0–31.5) 26.5 (17.2–37.9) 25.3 (17.4–34.7) 24.3 (16.1–34.3) 0.70
   dG-MDA (ρ mol/mg DNA) -0.02 (0.22) 0.01 0.94 18.8 (12.1–27.0) 32.7 (22.8–44.4) 31.5 (22.4–42.0) 23.0 (15.7–31.8) 0.91
   dG-MDA adjusted for antioxidants (ρ mol/mg DNA) 0.10 (0.23) 0.18 0.67 19.8 (12.6–28.5) 32.8 (22.4–45.1) 28.2 (19.4–38.7) 23.6 (15.9–32.8) 0.58
Postmenopausal (n = 149)4         
   Serum MDA (μmol/l) -0.33 (0.49) 0.47 0.49 21.3 (13.4–31.1) 24.7 (16.5–34.5) 22.4 (14.1–32.7) 21.2 (13.6–30.4) 0.84
   Serum MDA adjusted for antioxidants (μmol/l) -0.37 (0.52) 0.52 0.47 22.3 (13.2–33.9) 25.4 (16.8–35.7) 23.4 (14.4–34.5) 21.8 (13.7–31.9) 0.77
   Total urinary MDA (μmol/day) 0.19 (0.39) 0.24 0.63 25.1 (16.3–35.8) 19.1 (11.5–28.7) 29.5 (20.5–40.2) 24.5 (11.6–34.0) 1.00
   Total urinary MDA adjusted for antioxidants (μmol/day) -0.04 (0.41) 0.01 0.93 27.6 (17.9–39.6) 19.8 (11.5–30.3) 21.4 (13.5–31.1) 24.7 (16.4–34.7) 0.65
   dG-MDA (ρ mol/mg DNA) -0.05 (0.28) 0.04 0.85 22.6 (14.9–32.1) 22.8 (14.1–33.5) 24.2 (15.2–35.2) 23.3 (14.8–33.7) 0.86
   dG-MDA adjusted for antioxidants (ρ mol/mg DNA) -0.11 (0.29) 0.14 0.71 23.2 (14.7–33.6) 23.5 (14.4–34.8) 25.8 (16.1–37.8) 21.9 (13.5–32.4) 0.87
  1. 1β associated with log transformed malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as the independent variable and square-root transformed percentage breast density as the dependent variable. All statistical models are adjusted for age, ethnicity, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, and smoking status. 2Models are further adjusted for serum levels of the antioxidants tocopherol, retinal, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein. 3 n = 143 for serum MDA with adjustment for antioxidants; n = 141 for urinary MDA and n = 138 with adjustment for antioxidants; and n = 141 for malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine (dG-MDA) adducts and n = 139 with adjustment for antioxidants. 4 n = 145 for dG-MDA. CMR, caffeine metabolic ratio.