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Table 2 Summary of transforming growth factor-β1-induced cellular responses in vitro

From: Induction by transforming growth factor-β1 of epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a rare event in vitro

  TGF-β1-induced responsea
Cell strain Acquisition of spindle shapeb Loss of junctional E-cadherinc Loss of junctional ZO-1c Actin stress fiber formationc
HEK ± - N/Ad ±
HMECe ± - N/Ad +
HaCaT - - - ±
Colo357 - - - ±
Panc-1 - - - -
NMuMG + + + +
MCT + + + +
  1. aTreatment with 5 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 48 hours. bDetermined by phase contrast microscopy. cDetermined by E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, or F-actin immunofluorescence. dHuman epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) exhibited little to no junctional ZO-1 staining in the absence of TGF-β1 treatment. eHMECs from patients #1012 and #1016. Cellular responses to TGF-β1 designated by + (strong), ± (weak), or - (negative).