aTreatment with 5 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 48 hours. bDetermined by phase contrast microscopy. cDetermined by E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, or F-actin immunofluorescence. dHuman epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) exhibited little to no junctional ZO-1 staining in the absence of TGF-β1 treatment. eHMECs from patients #1012 and #1016. Cellular responses to TGF-β1 designated by + (strong), ± (weak), or - (negative).