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Table 1 Angiogenesis modulators produced by inflammatory/immunecells

From: Host microenvironment in breast cancer development Inflammatory and immune cells in tumour angiogenesis and arteriogenesis

Cell type Activity Molecule Reference
Macrophages Proangiogenic VEGF [62]
   TGF-α [63, 64]
   IL-8 [65]
   bFGF [66]
   TP [30, 67]
   PDGF [68]
   Substance P [69]
   Prostaglandins [70]
  Antiangiogenic TSP-1 [71]
   IFN-α [72]
   IFN-γ [73]
  Protease t-PA [74]
   u-PA [75, 76]
   MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9 and -12 [10, 12, 51]
Mast cells Proangiogenic VEGF [77, 78]
   bFGF [79]
   TGF-β [80]
   TNF-α [81]
   IL-8 [81]
   Histamine [48]
  Protease Chymase [9, 81, 82]
   Tryptase [9, 81]
   MMP-9 [12]
   Heparanase [83]
Neutrophils Proangiogenic VEGF [84]
   IL-8 [84]
  Antiangiogenic IL-12 [84]
   IP-10 [85]
   MIG [85]
  Protease MMP-9 [86]
   u-PA [86]
   Elastase [12, 87]
  1. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; IFN, interferon; IP, interferon gamma inducible protein; MMP, matrix metalloprotease; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; TP, thymidine phosphorylase; t-PA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; u-PA, urokinase-type plasminogen activator; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.