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Table 1 Prognostic power of the TSTSS in three independent ER+ breast cancer datasets

From: An integrated genomic approach identifies persistent tumor suppressive effects of transforming growth factor-β in human breast cancer

   Breast cancer cohort
   GSE6532 (Loi) NKI TCGA
Variable Ref for HR = 1 Hazard ratio CI Pvalue Hazard ratio CI Pvalue Hazard ratio CI Pvalue
TSTSS High 1.89 1.1-3.27 0.02211 1.81 1.12-2.93 0.01535 2.6 1.21-5.58 0.0142
metaPCNA Low 2.32 1.27-4.24 0.006251 1.67 0.96-2.92 0.07143 0.77 0.38-1.58 0.4788
Age Low* 1.03 0.63-1.69 0.9 0.52 0.32-0.84 0.007841 1.88 0.94-3.75 0.07393
Node Negative 0.91 0.54-1.53 0.7113 0.84 0.52-1.34 0.4651 2.33 1.07-5.08 0.03389
Grade Grade 1 0.99 0.67-1.47 0.9798 1.57 1.1-2.25 0.01365 na na na
Size Continuous 1.33 1.09-1.62 0.005177 1.22 0.95-1.57 0.1109 na na na
  1. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Nineteen out of the 26 genes of the TSTSS were found in the GSE6532 (Loi) and NKI cohorts, and 24 out of 26 genes were found in the TCGA cohort. The TSTSS was analyzed as a binary variable where high indicates higher than median expression. The hazard ratio refers to distant metastasis-free survival for GSE6532 and NKI, and overall survival for TCGA. The metaPCNA index is a surrogate for proliferation and low indicates lower than median expression. Parameters for the TSTSS are highlighted in bold. *Low is ≤61 yrs (GSE6532); ≤45 yrs (NKI); ≤60 yrs (TCGA). HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; TSTSS, TGF-β/Smad3 tumor suppressor signature; na, not available.