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Table 4 Associations of categorical mammographic density with breast cancer overall and by morphological subtypes

From: Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics

  Number of cases Number of controls Odds ratio (95% CI)a P heterogeneity b
Overall breast cancer     
   0 to 10% 430 1,485 0.65 (0.56, 0.74)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 872 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 1,379 2,386 1.65 (1.48, 1.84)  
   51%+ 733 1,080 2.15 (1.88, 2.46)  
Invasiveness     
Invasive     0.46
   0 to 10% 372 1,485 0.66 (0.57, 0.76)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 730 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 1,129 2,386 1.65 (1.47, 1.86)  
   51%+ 605 1,080 2.21 (1.92, 2.55)  
In situ     
   0 to 10% 52 1,485 0.54 (0.38, 0.75)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 139 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 240 2,386 1.60 (1.28, 2.00)  
   51%+ 124 1,080 1.87 (1.42, 2.48)  
Histology c     0.04
Ductal     
   0 to 10% 281 1,485 0.66 (0.56, 0.78)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 556 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 884 2,386 1.66 (1.46, 1.88)  
   51%+ 466 1,080 2.14 (1.83, 2.51)  
Lobular     
   0 to 10% 44 1,485 0.54 (0.37, 0.78)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 100 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 119 2,386 1.36 (1.03, 1.80)  
   51%+ 84 1,080 2.69 (1.93, 3.74)  
Histologic grade     0.89
Well differentiated     
   0 to 10% 107 1,485 0.61 (0.47, 0.77)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 228 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 295 2,386 1.41 (1.17, 1.70)  
   51%+ 169 1,080 2.12 (1.68, 2.67)  
Moderately differentiated     
   0 to 10% 146 1,485 0.69 (0.56, 0.86)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 270 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 430 2,386 1.70 (1.44, 2.02)  
   51%+ 232 1,080 2.31 (1.87, 2.84)  
Poorly differentiated     
   0 to 10% 75 1,485 0.65 (0.48, 0.87)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 148 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 273 2,386 1.90 (1.53, 2.35)  
   51%+ 143 1,080 2.34 (1.80, 3.04)  
Tumor size     <0.001
<1.1 cm     
   0 to 10% 179 1,485 0.93 (0.76, 1.14)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 265 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 353 2,386 1.37 (1.15, 1.63)  
   51%+ 172 1,080 1.61 (1.29, 2.01)  
1.1 to 2.0 cm     
   0 to 10% 121 1,485 0.54 (0.43, 0.67)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 294 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 453 2,386 1.64 (1.39, 1.93)  
   51%+ 253 1,080 2.27 (1.86, 2.77)  
2.1+ cm     
   0 to 10% 56 1,485 0.42 (0.30, 0.57)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 154 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 280 2,386 2.07 (1.67, 2.57)  
   51%+ 159 1,080 3.12 (2.41, 4.04)  
Involvement of lymph nodes     0.01
Negative     
   0 to 10% 257 1,485 0.67 (0.57, 0.79)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 508 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 744 2,386 1.54 (1.35, 1.76)  
   51%+ 406 1,080 2.07 (1.76, 2.44)  
Positive     
   0 to 10% 65 1,485 0.52 (0.38, 0.70)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 157 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 298 2,386 1.99 (1.61, 2.45)  
   51%+ 164 1,080 2.67 (2.07, 3.44)  
Estrogen receptor status     0.66
Negative     
   0 to 10% 48 1,485 0.61 (0.43, 0.88)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 106 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 192 2,386 1.79 (1.39, 2.30)  
   51%+ 102 1,080 2.18 (1.61, 2.96)  
Positive     
   0 to 10% 305 1,485 0.65 (0.56, 0.77)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 596 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 880 2,386 1.60 (1.41, 1.82)  
   51%+ 479 1,080 2.22 (1.9, 2.60)  
Progesterone receptor status    0.10
Negative     
   0 to 10% 90 1,485 0.65 (0.50, 0.85)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 187 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 288 2,386 1.59 (1.30, 1.94)  
   51%+ 151 1,080 1.99 (1.56, 2.55)  
Positive     
   0 to 10% 265 1,485 0.66 (0.56, 0.78)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 512 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 782 2,386 1.65 (1.45, 1.89)  
   51%+ 424 1,080 2.28 (1.93, 2.68)  
HER2 status     0.69
Negative     
   0 to 10% 189 1,485 0.66 (0.54, 0.80)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 367 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 560 2,386 1.63 (1.40, 1.90)  
   51%+ 298 1,080 2.06 (1.70, 2.49)  
Positive     
   0 to 10% 31 1,485 0.62 (0.40, 0.97)  
   11 to 25% (reference) 62 2,248 1.00 (reference)  
   26 to 50% 116 2,386 1.94 (1.40, 2.69)  
   51%+ 60 1,080 2.33 (1.57, 3.45)  
  1. CI, confidence interval; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. aAdjusted for age, body mass index, and study.
  2. bTest of heterogeneity in associations by subtype (Ptrend for categories with natural ordering; that is, tumor size and histologic grade).
  3. cMixed and other histology categories are excluded.