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Table 1 Characteristics of the study populations

From: Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics

Study name (abbreviation) Reference Study design Number of cases/controls Enrollment year(s) Mammogram film view Median interval (years) between mammogram and diagnosis (index date) Source of cases Source of pathology Source of covariate data
Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS) [27, 28] Nested case–control study 404/1,207 2003 to 2006 CC average 3.6 Linkage to clinic and state cancer registries Clinic and three state cancer registries;medical records Questionnaire and medical record review (BMI)
Mayo Clinic Breast Cancer Study (MCBCS) [29, 30] Case–control study 261/179 2001 to 2008 CC contralateral 1.3 Clinic Clinic cancer registry; medical records Questionnaire and medical record review (BMI)
Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) [31, 33] Nested case–control study 1,108/2,163 1989 to 1990 CC average 5.2 Self-report Pathology reports and tumor tissue microarray Questionnaire
Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) [32] Nested case–control study 365/992 1996 to 1999 CC average 4.2 Self-report Pathology reports and tumor tissue microarray Questionnaire
Mayo Clinic Mammography Study (MCMAM) [34] Case–control study 372/679 1997 to 2001 CC average 7.1 Clinic Clinic cancer registries; medical records Medical record review
Bay Area Breast Cancer SPORE and San Francisco Mammography Registry (SFMR) [3537] Nested case–control study 904/1,979 1996 to 2007 CC contralateral 3.1 Linkage to state-wide SEER program SEER Questionnaire
  1. BMI, body mass index; CC, craniocaudal mammogram view; SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results.