Blocking hepatocyte growth factor signaling reverses basal-like microenvironments and slows morphogenesis in three-dimensional coculture. (A) Basal-like interaction score of MCF10DCIS:RMF direct cocultures when treated with anti-hepatocyte growth factor (anti-HGF) antibody (as described in Materials and methods), despite the variability basal-like score being reversed from positive association to negative association. (B) Morphogenesis represents a balance between cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular migration. Morphogenesis assays track these processes in vitro. Bar graph shows the quantification of structures with and without lumens at 2 weeks in coculture. When HGF signaling is blocked in the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cocultures, the morphogenesis process is slowed down, causing these acinar structures to display an intermediate phenotype between the MCF10DCIS and the MCF10A cocultures. (C) Apoptosis was lowest for DCIS at 2 weeks, these cocultures had already undergone cavitation at that time point. Treatment with anti-HGF increases the apoptosis levels at this time-point because of delayed the cavitation process. (D) Representative hematoxylin and eosin images of cross-sections of the 3D structures and with apoptotic bodies. NT, not treated with anti HGF; RMF, reduction mammoplasty fibroblast.