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Table 6 Clinicopathologic characteristics of patients according to metabolic phenotype a

From: Metabolic interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells according to breast cancer molecular subtype

Parameters Warburg type Reverse Warburg Mixed type Null type P-value
(n= 298) (%) type (n= 54) (%) (n= 62) (%) (n= 326) (%)
Age (years, mean ± SD) 48.5 ± 11.7 52.0 ± 10.2 51.3 ± 10.2 50.1 ± 10.5 0.052
Histologic grade      <0.001
 I/II 169 (56.7) 41 (75.9) 23 (37.0) 258 (79.1)  
 III 129 (43.3) 13 (24.1) 39 (72.2) 68 (20.9)  
Tumor stage      0.017
 T1 123 (41.3) 29 (53.7) 34 (54.8) 172 (52.8)  
 T2/T3 175 (58.7) 25 (46.3) 28 (45.2) 154 (47.2)  
Nodal stage      0.457
 N0 177 (59.3) 27 (50.0) 40 (64.5) 192 (58.9)  
 N1/N2/N3 121 (40.6) 27 (50.0) 22 (35.5) 134 (41.1)  
Estrogen receptor status      <0.001
 Negative 152 (51.0) 15 (27.8) 39 (62.9) 80 (24.5)  
 Positive 146 (49.0) 39 (72.2) 23 (37.1) 246 (75.5)  
Progesterone receptor status      <0.001
 Negative 181 (60.7) 22 (40.7) 40 (64.5) 129 (39.6)  
 Positive 117 (39.3) 32 (59.3) 22 (35.5) 197 (60.4)  
HER2 status      0.006
 Negative 252 (84.6) 36 (66.7) 47 (75.8) 248 (76.1)  
 Positive 46 (15.4) 18 (33.3) 15 (24.2) 78 (23.9)  
Molecular subtype      <0.001
 Luminal A 91 (30.5) 22 (40.7) 12 (19.4) 173 (53.1)  
 Luminal B 58 (19.5) 18 (33.3) 13 (21.0) 77 (23.6)  
 HER2 22 (7.4) 7 (13.0) 10 (16.1) 30 (9.2)  
 Triple-negative 127 (42.6) 7 (13.0) 27 (43.5) 46 (14.1)  
ATP synthase in tumor      0.178
 Negative 8 (2.7) 1 (1.9) 2 (3.2) 19 (5.8)  
 Positive 290 (97.3) 53 (98.1) 60 (96.8) 307 (94.2)  
ATP synthase in stroma      <0.001
 Negative 247 (82.9) 29 (53.7) 33 (53.2) 261 (80.1)  
 Positive 51 (17.1) 25 (46.3) 29 (46.8) 65 (19.9)  
Glutaminase in tumor      0.512
 Negative 84 (28.2) 13 (24.1) 17 (27.4) 105 (32.2)  
 Positive 214 (71.8) 41 (75.9) 45 (72.6) 221 (67.8)  
Glutaminase in stroma      <0.001
 Negative 206 (69.1) 20 (37.0) 29 (46.8) 240 (73.6)  
 Positive 92 (30.9) 34 (63.0) 33 (53.2) 86 (26.4)  
Tumor mitochondrial status      0.217
 Dysfunctional 94 (31.5) 20 (37.0) 26 (41.9) 96 (29.4)  
 Functional 204 (68.5) 34 (63.0) 36 (58.1) 230 (70.6)  
Stroma mitochondrial status      0.055
 Dysfunctional 13 (4.4) 3 (5.6) 8 (12.9) 16 (4.9)  
 Functional 285 (95.6) 51 (94.4) 54 (87.1) 310 (95.1)  
Tumor autophagy status      <0.001
 Activated 168 (56.4) 28 (51.9) 45 (72.6) 117 (35.9)  
 Nonactivated 130 (43.6) 26 (48.1) 17 (27.4) 209 (64.1)  
Stroma autophagy status      <0.001
 Activated 9 (3.0) 11 (20.4) 13 (21.0) 21 (6.4)  
 Nonactivated 289 (97.0) 43 (79.6) 49 (79.0) 305 (93.6)  
MCT4 in tumor      <0.001
 Negative 180 (60.4) 38 (70.4) 40 (64.5) 282 (86.5)  
 Positive 118 (39.6) 16 (29.6) 22 (35.5) 44 (13.5)  
MCT4 in stroma      <0.001
 Negative 157 (52.7) 22 (40.7) 20 (32.3) 219 (67.2)  
 Positive 141 (47.3) 32 (59.3) 42 (67.7) 107 (32.8)  
Ki-67 LI (%, mean ± SD) 24.6 ± 22.5 13.2 ± 11.1 25.2 ± 18.6 11.5 ± 14.1 <0.001
 Tumor recurrence 38 (12.8) 6 (11.1) 4 (6.5) 21 (6.4) 0.043
 Patient’s death 36 (12.1) 5 (9.3) 6 (9.7) 20 (6.1) 0.081
  1. aLI, labeling index; MCT4, monocarboxylate transporter 4.