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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Obesity enhances nongenomic estrogen receptor crosstalk with the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways to promote in vitro measures of breast cancer progression

  Obese Control
Number of patients 20 5
Average age (years) 59.7 (6.28) 59.5 (4.76)
Average BMI (kg/m2) 36.6 (5.04)** 21.1 (2.17)
Average serum concentrations   
   Free IGF-1 (ng/ml) 4.92 (0.925) 5.43 (1.80)
   Insulin (pg/ml) 742.9 (156.8) 157.4 (44.1)
   Interleukin 6 (pg/ml) 4.6 (0.58)* 1.6 (0.29)
   TNF-α (pg/ml) 7.1 (0.51)* 4.6 (0.19)
   Leptin (ng/ml) 36.6 (4.67)** 6.40 (3.86)
   Adiponectin (ug/ml) 54.5 (6.55)* 97.5 (32.0)
Ethnicity/race   
   Hispanic 12 0
   White 6 3
   African-American 2 0
   Asian 0 1
   Not Available 0 1
Confounding conditions   
   Diabetes 5 0
   Hypercholesterolemia 8 0
   Hypertension 14 1
Medications   
   Aromatase inhibitor 9 1
   Tamoxifen 5 2
   Chemotherapy 6 2
   Metformin 5 0
   Statin 8 0
  1. (Standard error of the mean); *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01 in comparison to control. BMI, body mass index; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha.