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Table 3 Hormone changes during weight maintenance phase, stratified by changes in weight criteria

From: Sex hormone changes during weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese postmenopausal African-American and non-African-American women

  Months since study entry Effect of weight change on hormones
  End of weight loss phase Weight loss maintenance 6 months vs. 18 months
  6 months 18 months % Δ P value
Weight gain >3% ( n = 141)     
Weight (kg)a 82.2 (13.8) 87.6 (14.77) 5.4 <0.0001
Hormone     
   Estrone (pg/ml) 35.6 (1.6) 34.8 (1.5) -2.2 0.50
   Estradiol (pg/ml) 8.4 (0.4) 8.8 (0.4) 4.2 0.20
   Testosterone (ng/dl) 21.5 (1.1) 22.1 (1.1) 2.7 0.36
   Androstenedione (pg/ml) 417 (17.1) 406 (18.1) -2.9 0.34
   Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (µg/dl) 48.6 (2.8) 47.6 (2.9) -2.0 0.34
   Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) 38.2 (1.3) 32.6 (1.1) -14.5 <0.0001
   Free estradiol (pg/ml) 0.22 (0.01) 0.24 (0.01) 9.0 0.006
   Free testosterone (pg/ml) 4.5 (0.2) 4.9 (0.3) 10.4 0.0007
Weight maintainers, ≤3% weight gain ( n = 68)    
Weight (kg)a 82.6 (15.2) 84.0 (15.5) 1.4 <0.0001
Hormone     
   Estrone (pg/ml) 37.2 (1.9) 35.3 (1.9) -5.2 0.17
   Estradiol (pg/ml) 9.4 (0.7) 9.2 (0.6) -2.3 0.55
   Testosterone (ng/dl) 27.1 (1.9) 26.4 (1.7) -2.6 0.59
   Androstenedione (pg/ml) 473 (22.0) 475 (22.2) 0.4 0.92
   Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (µg/dl) 50.1 (3.6) 47.3 (3.4) -5.6 0.16
   Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) 39.1 (2.1) 37.0 (1.9) -5.3 0.01
   Free estradiol (pg/ml) 0.25 (0.02) 0.25 (0.02) -1.1 0.78
   Free testosterone (pg/ml) 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) -0.2 0.97
Continued weight loss ( n = 69)     
Weight (kg)a 78.5 (14.6) 75.2 (14.0) -3.4 <0.0001
Hormone     
   Estrone (pg/ml) 37.0 (2.0) 31.4 (1.9) -15.2 0.0003
   Estradiol (pg/ml) 8.3 (0.6) 8.0 (0.7) -3.8 0.60
   Testosterone (ng/dl) 25.7 (1.6) 26.2(1.8) 2.1 0.55
   Androstenedione (pg/ml) 434 (25.6) 472 (28.7) 8.8 0.02
   Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (µg/dl) 44.4 (3.0) 44.4 (3.6) -0.02 1.00
   Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) 47.4 (2.9) 48.3 (2.9) 1.9 0.48
   Free estradiol (pg/ml) 0.21 (0.02) 0.2 (0.02) -1.5 0.84
   Free testosterone (pg/ml) 4.7 (0.3) 4.8 (0.3) 1.2 0.70
  1. Generalized estimating equations models used to estimate mean (standard error) and percentage change (% Δ) in hormone concentrations over each study phase adjusted for race, age, physical activity, phase and initial body mass index (kg/m2). aRow represents the mean (standard deviation) for weight at the start of each phase, average weight change between each phase and overall.
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