Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 1 | Breast Cancer Research

Figure 1

From: Hypoxia and oxidative stress in breast cancer Hypoxia and tumourigenesis

Figure 1

Hypoxic regulation of pathways promoting tumour growth. The transcriptional level response to hypoxia is amplified by positive feedback mechanisms and substantial crosstalk between the interconnecting pathways, thus providing a strong, co-ordinated response promoting tumourigenesis and malignant progression. EC,endothelial cell; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1; PBMC,peripheral blood mononuclear cell; TAM, tumour-associated macrophage; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

Back to article page