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Table 3 Risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women not using hormones in the Nurses' Health Study on the basis of several estrogen and androgen scoresa

From: The combined influence of multiple sex and growth hormones on risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a nested case-control study

  RR (95% CI)b, all casesc RR (95% CI)b, ER+ casesc
Hormone scores Estrogen scores Androgen scores Estrogen scores Androgen scores
Number of hormones > geometric meand   
   0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   1 1.5 (1.0 to 2.5) 1.1 (0.6 to 2.0) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.6) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)
   2 1.5 (0.9 to 2.3) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.5) 1.6 (0.9 to 2.8) 1.8 (0.9 to 3.5)
   3 or 4 1.9 (1.3 to 3.0) 1.5 (0.9 to 2.3) 2.2 (1.3 to 3.8) 1.5 (0.8 to 2.6)
   Per 1-unit increase 1.21 (1.06 to 1.38) 1.12 (1.00 to 1.25) 1.29 (1.09 to 1.53) 1.09 (0.95 to 1.25)
   Per 1 SD increase§ 1.25 (1.07 to 1.47) 1.18 (1.00 to 1.40) 1.36 (1.11 to 1.67) 1.14 (0.92 to 1.40)
   P trend 0.01 0.05 0.003 0.22
Score weighted by individual hormone associationse  
   Quintile 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Quintile 2 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 1.1 (0.7 to 2.0) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.6)
   Quintile 3 1.8 (1.1 to 3.0) 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 1.7 (0.9 to 3.4) 1.8 (0.9 to 3.6)
   Quintile 4 1.3 (0.7 to 2.2) 1.2 (0.7 to 2.1) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.6) 1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)
   Quintile 5 2.1 (1.2 to 3.7) 1.7 (1.0 to 3.0) 2.4 (1.2 to 4.9) 2.0 (1.0 to 4.2)
   Per 1 SD increasee 1.28 (1.08 to 1.52) 1.19 (0.99 to 1.42) 1.38 (1.12 to 1.71) 1.16 (0.92 to 1.46)
   P trend 0.005 0.06 0.003 0.21
  1. ER = estrogen receptor. aHormones included in the score are estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate in the estrogen score and testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the androgen score. bRR and 95% CI were adjusted for age at blood draw and menopause, parity, history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer, fasting status and time of day of blood draw. cn = 265 total cases and n = 147 ER+ cases. dScore is the number of hormones for which the participant had higher than the age- and assay batch-adjusted geometric mean hormone level. Among controls, the estrogen score mean = 1.5 (SD = 1.2) and the androgen score mean = 2.1 (SD = 1.5). eScore is the sum of the log2-transformed hormone level multiplied by the β coefficient for that hormone with breast cancer risk. Among controls, the estrogen score mean = 4.3 (SD = 0.6) and the androgen score mean = 6.0 (SD = 0.7).