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Table 2 Risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women not using hormones in the Nurses' Health Study on the basis of several hormone scoresa

From: The combined influence of multiple sex and growth hormones on risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a nested case-control study

  Sample size RR (95% CI)b
Hormone scores Total cases ER+ cases Controls All cases ER+ casesc
Number of hormones > geometric meand
   0 11 5 43 1.0 1.0
   1 to 2 35 18 113 1.1 (0.5 to 2.4) 1.2 (0.4 to 3.4
   3 to 4 63 35 146 1.6 (0.8 to 3.3) 1.8 (0.7 to 5.0)
   5 to 6 82 43 137 2.1 (1.0 to 4.5) 2.4 (0.9 to 6.5)
   7 to 8 74 46 102 2.7 (1.3 to 5.7) 3.4 (1.3 to 9.4)
   Per 1-unit increase 265 147 541 1.16 (1.08 to 1.24) 1.19 (1.09 to 1.29)
   Per 1 SD increased 265 147 541 1.42 (1.21 to 1.66) 1.51 (1.24 to 1.85)
   P trend 265 147 541 < 0.001 < 0.001
Score weighted by individual hormone associationse
   Quintile 1 30 14 109 1.0 1.0
   Quintile 2 42 24 107 1.4 (0.8 to 2.4) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.5)
   Quintile 3 48 25 109 1.6 (0.9 to 2.7) 1.8 (0.9 to 3.7)
   Quintile 4 58 32 108 2.0 (1.2 to 3.3) 2.3 (1.1 to 4.5)
   Quintile 5 87 52 108 3.0 (1.8 to 5.0) 3.9 (2.0 to 7.5)
   Per 1 SD increasee 265 147 541 1.45 (1.23 to 1.70) 1.54 (1.26 to 1.88)
   P trend 265 147 541 < 0.001 < 0.001
Score weighted by MCF-7 proliferationf
   Quintile 1 35 16 108 1.0 1.0
   Quintile 2 37 27 109 1.0 (0.6 to 1.7) 1.6 (0.8 to 3.2)
   Quintile 3 55 23 108 1.6 (0.9 to 2.6) 1.5 (0.7 to 2.9)
   Quintile 4 53 29 109 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5) 1.8 (0.9 to 3.5)
   Quintile 5 85 52 107 2.5 (1.5 to 4.1) 3.5 (1.8 to 6.6)
   Per 1 SD increasef 265 147 541 1.44 (1.22 to 1.69) 1.55 (1.26 to 1.89)
   P trend 265 147 541 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. ER = estrogen receptor. aHormones included in the score are estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and prolactin. bRR and 95% CI were adjusted for age at blood draw and menopause, parity, history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer, fasting status and time of day of blood draw. cn = 147 ER-positive cases. dScore is the number of hormones for which the participant had higher than the age- and assay batch-adjusted geometric mean hormone level. Mean = 4.0 (SD = 2.4). eScore is the sum of the log2-transformed hormone level multiplied by the β coefficient for that hormone with breast cancer risk. Mean = 10.8 (SD = 1.1) among controls. fScore is the sum (across all hormones) of the natural log-transformed hormone level multiplied by a standardized proliferation rate (compared to estradiol) for MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mean = 20.2 (SD = 2.1) among controls.