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Table 4 Summary of studies of mammographic density and risk of second breast cancers

From: Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: current understanding and future prospects

     Results   
Authors, region (year) Study population Median follow-up Measurement of MD Eventsb Number HR (95% CI) Adjustmentsa Comments
Habel et al. [91], USA (2010) 935 patients with DCIS 8 years Planimeter Highest versus lowest quintile of dense area All Ips. 228 164 1.8 (1.2 to 2.9) 1.7 (1.0 to 2.9) Age, BMI, treatment, and diagnosis year Similar HR in subgroups of age, BMI, treatment, and menopausal status
     Cont. 59 3.0 (1.3 to 6.9)   
Hwang et al. [93], USA (2007) 3,274 patients with DCIS 39 months BI-RADS High (3 or 4) versus low (1 or 2) All inv. 133 1.4 (0.9 to 2.1) Age and radiation treatment No interaction of density with radiation treatment
     Ips. inv. 83 1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)   
     Cont. inv. 52 3.1 (1.6 to 6.1)   
Habel et al. [90], USA (2004) 334 patients with DCIS 11 years Planimetry >75% versus <25% PMD All 112 2.8 (1.3 to 6.1) Age, BMI, and radiation treatment No interaction with radiation treatment or menopausal Status
     Ips. 80 3.0 (1.2 to 7.5)   
     Cont. 28 3.4 (0.7 to 16.2)   
Cil et al. [79], Canada (2009) 335 patients with invasive breast cancer 8 years Wolfe score High versus low Wolfe score Ips. inv. 34 5.7 (1.6 to 20.0) Age, menopause, and radiation treatment Association stronger in those who did not receive radiation treatment
     Dist. inv. 31 No association (HR not given)   
Park et al. [92], USA (2008) 136 patients with invasive breast cancer 7.7 years Computer- assisted >75% versus <25% PMD Ips. inv. 19 3.4 (1.6 to 7.5) BMI  
     Cont./Dist. inv. 25 No association (HR not given)   
  1. aFactors included in the analysis of mammographic density and risk of second breast cancer. bEvents include in situ and invasive cancer unless specified as invasive (inv.). All, all second breast cancers; BI-RADS, Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; Cont., second cancer in contralateral breast; DCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ; Dist, distant metastasis; HR, hazard ratio; Ips, second cancer in ipsilateral breast; MD, mammographic density; PMD, percent mammographic density.