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Table 2 Prognoses after diagnosis of breast cancer by tumour characteristics and lifestyle factors

From: Elevated pre-treatment levels of plasma C-reactive protein are associated with poor prognosis after breast cancer: a cohort study

  Overall survival Disease-free survival Death from breast cancer Recurrence
Prognostic and lifestyle factors Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Age, years     
   <57 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   57 to 69 1.51 (1.12 to 2.03) 1.19 (0.90 to 1.56) 1.13 (0.79 to 1.62) 0.61 (0.40 to 0.93)
   ≥69 3.20 (2.45 to 4.18) 2.25 (1.76 to 2.87) 2.05 (1.49 to 2.82) 0.56 (0.36 to 0.88)
Tumour size, mm     
   ≤20 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   20 to 50 2.39 (1.89 to 3.01) 2.12 (1.72 to 2.62) 3.27 (2.37 to 4.51) 1.49 (1.03 to 2.17)
   >50 3.48 (2.22 to 5.44) 2.44 (1.53 to 3.90) 4.27 (2.33 to 7.82) 0.95 (0.30 to 3.03)
Lymph node status     
   Lymph node negative 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Lymph node positive 1.47 (1.18 to 1.84) 1.48 (1.21 to 1.82) 2.49 (1.81 to 3.43) 2.08 (1.41 to 3.07)
Distant metastases     
   No 1.00 NA 1.00 NA
   Yes 8.57 (5.61 to 13.1) NA 12.32 (7.66 to 19.80) NA
Histopathological grade     
   Well differentiated 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Moderately differentiated 1.64 (1.19 to 2.26) 1.57 (1.16 to 2.11) 2.52 (1.53 to 4.13) 1.94 (1.05 to 3.59)
   Poorly/un-differentiated 2.76 (1.96 to 3.90) 3.00 (2.18 to 4.12) 5.28 (3.17 to 8.79) 5.32 (2.87 to 9.87)
Estrogen receptor status     
   Positive 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Negative 2.09 (1.63 to 2.66) 1.98 (1.57 to 2.49) 3.03 (2.24 to 4.10) 2.31 (1.54 to 3.47)
Progesterone receptor status     
   Positive 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Negative 2.32 (1.77 to 3.05) 2.02 (1.58 to 2.60) 3.28 (2.25 to 4.77) 1.91 (1.23 to 2.95)
HER2 receptor status     
   Positive 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Negative 2.46 (1.38 to 4.39) 2.06 (1.21 to 3.52) 2.72 (1.30 to 5.69) 1.49 (0.58 to 3.85)
No. of cigarettes smoked per day     
   <10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   10 to 20 1.30 (0.97 to 1.75) 1.15 (0.86 to 1.54) 1.55 (1.09 to 2.21) 0.96 (0.55 to 1.66)
   ≥20 1.06 (0.74 to 1.51) 0.96 (0.68 to 1.36) 0.81 (0.49 to 1.37) 0.73 (0.37 to 1.45)
Alcohol consumption in grams per week*     
   ≤168 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   >168 0.79 (0.53 to 1.19) 0.72 (0.48 to 1.08) 0.96 (0.59 to 1.55) 0.83 (0.42 to 1.65)
Body mass index in kg/m2†     
   <18.5 2.21 (1.37 to 3.57) 2.09 (1.31 to 3.32) 1.10 (0.48 to 2.52) 0.32 (0.04 to 2.29)
   18.5 to 24.9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   25 to 29.9 1.06 (0.80 to 1.40) 1.09 (0.84 to 1.42) 1.05 (0.74 to 1.49) 1.16 (0.74 to 1.82)
   ≥30 1.45 (1.01 to 2.09) 1.58 (1.13 to 2.21) 1.62 (1.05 to 2.52) 1.88 (1.08 to 3.25)
Menopause status, No (%)     
Post menopause 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Pre menopause 0.36 (0.26 to 0.51) 0.56 (0.42 to 0.74) 0.52 (0.36 to 0.77) 1.64 (1.12 to 2.42)
Cardiovascular disease, No (%)     
No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 2.46 (1.77 to 3.42) 2.32 (1.67 to 3.22) 1.70 (1.03 to 2.79) 1.45 (0.71 to 2.98)
  1. *Cut-off values are based on the recommendation from of the Danish National Board of Health.
  2. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
  3. Hazard ratios are unadjusted.
  4. NA: not applicable.