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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: An investigation of soy intake and mammographic characteristics in Hawaii

       All  
     Native     
Characteristic Caucasian Chinese Japanese Hawaiian Others Mean SD P *
Number 182 72 157 63 40 514   0.001
Age (years) 54.1 56.8 53.3 52.7 51.8 53.9 10.1 0.064
Body mass index 25.3 22.8 23.2 30.3 25.4 24.9 5.8 0.001
Years of education 16.1 16.7 16.1 14.6 14.1 15.8 3.1 0.001
Family history of breast cancer (%) 14.3 9.7 13.4 14.3 14.3 13.0   0.848
Age at menarche (years) 12.5 12.2 12.2 12.4 12.8 12.4 1.5 0.130
Age at first live birth (years) 24.9 26.7 27.0 21.6 24.4 25.3 5.3 0.001
Percent postmenopausal 59.9 63.9 55.4 55.6 60.0 58.6   0.757
Daily caloric intake (kcal) 2022 1806 2020 2886 2766 2155 1413 0.001
Percent calories from fat (%) 30.3 27.5 29.6 31.0 31.7 29.9 6.4 0.003
Fruits and vegetables (servings/day) 5.5 5.2 5.1 6.9 6.4 5.6 4.2 0.212
Meat (g/day) 86.9 87.9 100.1 145.5 169.3 104.7 100.2 0.001
Rice (g/day) 89.5 206.5 240.3 206.8 258.5 179.5 163.6 0.001
Alcohol (g/day) 111.7 32.4 27.0 76.7 74.2 67.5 185.5 0.001
All soy foods (SQ) (g/day) 22.3 37.6 39.4 51.9 72.4 37.2 86.3 0.001
All soy foods (FQ) (g/day) 10.6 20.7 27.2 25.7 24.3 20.0 32.2 0.001
All tofu (SQ) (g/day) 8.6 18.6 21.0 26.8 14.2 16.4 31.9 0.001
Tofu (FFQ) (g/day) 9.2 18.9 24.4 23.8 22.1 18.0 30.7 0.001
Soy milk/drinks (SQ) (g/day) 7.4 6.3 5.6 4.7 29.1 8.1 45.9 0.005
Green soybeans (SQ) (g/day) 1.4 2.6 4.8 9.2 6.2 3.9 16.2 0.001
Soybean sprouts (SQ) (g/day) 1.3 1.6 1.9 6.0 4.9 2.4 6.9 0.001
Other soy foods (SQ) (g/day) 3.7 8.5 6.1 5.2 17.9 6.4 25.7 < 0.001
Breast area (103 pixels) 1209 807 789 1353 1146 1037 588 < 0.001
Dense area (103 pixels) 296 246 254 307 304 278 171 0.460
Mammographic percent density (%) 29.0 36.0 34.9 26.4 31.2 31.6 16.9 < 0.001
Nondense area (103 pixels) pixels) 914 561 535 1046 842 759 557 < 0.001
  1. FFQ, Food frequency questionnaire; SQ, soy questionnaire. *Probabilities for ethnic differences were obtained through either one-way analysis of variance or chi-square tests.