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Table 1 Diet-related factors effecting mammary gland development in critical periods of development

From: Role of dietary fatty acids in mammary gland development and breast cancer

Time period Effect Reference
In utero n-6: decreased number of alveolar buds in female offspring [25]
  n-6: increased incidence of mammary tumors [25, 26]
  n-6: earlier menarche of female offspring [25, 26]
  n-6: increased number and duration of TEB in female offspring [25, 26]
  n-3: decreased BC risk in female offspring [28]
Lactation Breastfeeding decreased infant's BC risk [33]
  DHA in breast milk important for fetal development [35]
  Maternal trans fatty acid consumption decreased DHA levels in milk [36]
Birth to pubescence Birth weight > 4 kg increased risk of BC [5, 33, 34]
  Earlier menarche increased risk of BC [4, 45]
  Higher body mass index decreased risk of BC [8, 37, 41, 42]
  Estradiol exposure decreased risk of mammary tumors [39, 40]
  n-6: decreased mammary tumorigenesis [8]
  n-6: increased mammary tumor incidence [9]
  n-3: decreased number of TEB [46]
Pregnancy Later first pregnancy increased mother's risk of BC [4, 50]
  High-fat diet increased mother's risk of BC [26]
  Weight gain > 15 kg increased mother's risk of BC [45]
  1. BC, breast cancer; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; TEB, terminal end buds.