Fluoroscopy of popliteal fossa region. Fluoroscopic images of the lymphatic networks 6 wk following surgery were taken. Representative images from each group are shown above. In sham preparation (a) at 6 wk, the popliteal lymph node (arrow) is visible as well as several pre- and postnodal lymphatics. In the cases where nodes were removed (nodectomy (b) and HAMC (c)), at 6 wk a tangled network of lymphatics is visible at the surgical site, suggesting some lymph continuity has been reestablished through natural lymphangiogenesis. Growth factor-treated animals (d) displayed an increase in the number of vessels in the excision site. This increase in vessels may be responsible for the increase in lymphatic functionality seen in this group. Circles indicate popliteal fossa region.