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Table 1 Mechanisms of drug resistance in breast cancer [24, 25]

From: Chemotherapy resistance in metastatic breast cancer: the evolving role of ixabepilone

Class of resistance Drug examples
Drug transport/sequestration ABC transporters: P-glycoprotein, multidrug-resistant protein 1 (breast cancer resistance protein)
Modification of drug target (qualitative and quantitative) Dihydrofolate reductase, epidermal growth factor receptor; C-KIT mutations; tubulin
DNA repair/genomic instability Mismatch repair proteins; caspases, PTEN; p27; microsatellite instability, loss of heterozygosity, topoisomerase I, topoisomerase II
Regulators of apoptosis p53; PTEN; Bcl-2, Bcl-x
Drug metabolism/inactivation Cytochrome P450; glutathione S-transferase; aldehyde dehydrogenase
  1. ABC, ATP-binding cassette; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10.