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Table 6 Selected breast cancer risk factors in recent Chinese migrants by place of origina

From: Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

  Adjusted Mean (Lower and Upper 95% Confidence Limits)     
  From Had lived in both From P
  Mainland Mainland China Hong Kong P b P c P d P e
  China and Hong Kong      
  (N = 147) (N = 141) (N = 133)     
Age at menarche (years)f, g 14.3 (14.1, 14.6) 13.7 (13.4, 13.9) 13.0 (12.7, 13.3) <0.001 0.004 <0.001 0.003
Age at first live birth (years)f, h 24.6 (24.0, 25.2) 25.7 (25.0, 26.3) 26.3 (25.6, 27.0) 0.003 0.07 0.003 0.47
Parity (% yes) 99.0 (95.5, 99.8) 97.4 (93.1, 99.0) 94.4 (87.9, 97.5) 0.06 0.86 0.12 0.53
Breastfeeding (% yes) 95.4 (89.9, 98.0) 66.7 (56.9, 75.1) 45.1 (34.1, 56.7) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.007
Ever used oral contraceptives (% yes) 29.5 (21.7, 38.8) 41.4 (32.8, 50.5) 49.6 (39.9, 59.4) 0.02 0.21 0.02 0.64
Ever used hormone therapy (% yes)i 12.8 (8.0, 19.7) 37.8 (30.0, 46.9) 35.6 (26.8, 45.4) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.99
Standing height (cm)j 156.5 (155.4, 157.5) 156.6 (155.6, 157.5) 154.5 (153.5, 155.6) 0.009 0.99 0.05 0.01
Weight (kg)j 55.9 (54.3, 57.6) 55.5 (54.0, 56.9) 53.8 (52.3, 55.4) 0.15 0.99 0.22 0.34
BMI (kg/m2)j 22.9 (22.3, 23.5) 22.6 (22.1, 23.2) 22.5 (22.0, 23.1) 0.77 0.99 0.99 0.99
First degree history of breast cancer (% yes)k 4.4 (1.9, 9.7) 5.1 (2.3, 10.8) 14.3 (8.3, 23.4) 0.02 0.99 0.06 0.07
Any benign breast biopsy (% yes) 2.9 (1.2, 7.0) 4.4 (1.9, 9.6) 7.8 (3.9, 14.9) 0.21 0.99 0.26 0.81
Chinese Dietary Acculturation Scorel, m 0.64 (0.59, 0.68) 0.58 (0.54, 0.63) 0.50 (0.46, 0.54) <0.001 0.34 <0.001 0.006
Western Dietary Acculturation Scorem, n 0.62 (0.58, 0.66) 0.65 (0.61, 0.68) 0.65 (0.62, 0.68) 0.50 0.99 0.78 0.99
  1. a P values were based on ANCOVA for continuous variables and logistic regression for binary variables, adjusting for age, education, and years lived in the West. Pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Variables are expressed as adjusted means.
  2. b P values for ethnicity effect
  3. c P values for comparing recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China and recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong
  4. d P values for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China and recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong
  5. e P values for comparing recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong and recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong
  6. f Log transformed
  7. g There was 1 missing value for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China and 1 missing value for recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong.
  8. h Sample size was 144 for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China, 133 for recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong, and 120 for recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong.
  9. i There were 2 missing values for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China
  10. j There were 33 missing for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China, 18 for recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong, and 13 for recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong.
  11. k There were 5 missing values for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China, 21 for recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong, and 12 for recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong.
  12. l Square-root transformed. The scores ranged from 0 to 1. A high score indicates positive association with Chinese dietary practices.
  13. m There were 26 missing values for recent Chinese migrants from Mainland China, 12 for recent Chinese migrants who had lived in both Mainland China and Hong Kong, and 9 for recent Chinese migrants from Hong Kong.
  14. n Cube transformed. The scores ranged from 0 to 1. A high score indicates positive association with Western dietary practices.
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