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Table 2 Risk of breast cancer across quartiles of plasma carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinola

From: Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: a nested case-control study

Antioxidant (ng/ml) Number of cases/controlsb Odds ratioc 95% confidence interval
Total carotenoids    
   ≤ 1,129.4 76/129 1.00  
   1,129.5 to 1,510.2 71/135 0.88 0.58 to 1.32
   1,510.3 to 1,953.0 73/132 0.90 0.59 to 1.37
   ≥ 1,953.1 66/139 0.80 0.51 to 1.26
   (Ptrend = 0.39)  
Total carotenes    
   ≤ 231.7 79/126 1.00  
   231.8 to 373.5 66/139 0.75 0.49 to 1.14
   373.6 to 569.5 82/123 0.99 0.64 to 1.52
   ≥ 569.6 59/147 0.61 0.38 to 0.97
   (Ptrend = 0.08)  
α-Carotene    
   ≤ 42.0 73/132 1.00  
   42.1 to 67.5 70/135 0.95 0.62 to 1.45
   67.6 to 101.7 75/131 1.06 0.69 to 1.64
   ≥ 101.8 68/137 0.88 0.56 to 1.39
   (Ptrend = 0.64)  
β-Carotene    
   ≤ 180.4 79/127 1.00  
   180.5 to 301.9 64/140 0.74 0.49 to 1.13
   302.0 to 460.8 79/126 0.97 0.63 to 1.48
   ≥ 460.9 64/142 0.73 0.46 to 1.15
   (Ptrend = 0.30)  
trans-β-Carotene    
   ≤ 168.8 79/126 1.00  
   168.9 to 283.7 65/140 0.76 0.50 to 1.14
   283.8 to 432.5 76/129 0.91 0.59 to 1.40
   ≥ 432.6 66/140 0.76 0.49 to 1.19
   (Ptrend = 0.37)  
cis-β-Carotene    
   ≤ 11.9 78/128 1.00  
   12.0 to 19.5 72/133 0.89 0.59 to 1.33
   19.6 to 30.5 75/129 0.91 0.60 to 1.38
   ≥ 30.6 61/145 0.68 0.43 to 1.07
   (Ptrend = 0.10)  
Lycopene    
   ≤ 218.7 73/133 1.00  
   218.8 to 292.2 75/130 1.04 0.68 to 1.58
   292.3 to 391.7 70/135 0.91 0.06 to 1.37
   ≥ 391.8 68/137 0.88 0.57 to 1.38
   (Ptrend = 0.50)  
trans-Lutein/zeaxanthin    
   ≤ 186.8 77/129 1.00  
   186.9 to 246.5 70/135 0.92 0.60 to 1.41
   246.6 to 312.5 70/135 0.91 0.59 to 1.41
   ≥ 312.6 69/136 0.87 0.57 to 1.34
   (Ptrend = 0.55)  
trans-Lutein    
   ≤ 129.7 79/126 1.00  
   129.8 to 174.4 63/143 0.74 0.48 to 1.12
   174.5 to 223.4 74/131 0.94 0.62 to 1.44
   ≥ 223.5 70/135 0.85 0.55 to 1.29
   (Ptrend = 0.68)  
trans-Zeaxanthin    
   ≤ 53.6 71/134 1.00  
   53.7 to 70.7 80/126 1.17 0.78 to 1.77
   70.8 to 92.2 69/135 0.95 0.60 to 1.50
   ≥ 92.3 66/140 0.88 0.56 to 1.39
   (Ptrend = 0.44)  
cis-Lutein/zeaxanthin    
   ≤ 90.8 79/127 1.00  
   90.9 to 111.7 63/142 0.70 0.46 to 1.06
   111.8 to 137.8 77/128 0.90 0.59 to 1.37
   ≥ 137.9 67/138 0.75 0.48 to 1.16
   (Ptrend = 0.37)  
trans-Anhydrolutein    
   ≤ 40.0 76/129 1.00  
   40.1 to 54.0 71/135 0.88 0.57 to 1.36
   54.1 to 73.6 74/131 0.94 0.62 to 1.43
   ≥ 73.7 65/140 0.78 0.50 to 1.22
   (Ptrend = 0.31)  
cis-Anhydrolutein    
   ≤ 32.9 67/138 1.00  
   33.0 to 44.5 73/132 1.20 0.78 to 1.84
   44.6 to 57.7 73/133 1.21 0.78 to 1.87
   ≥ 57.8 73/132 1.21 0.77 to 1.91
   (Ptrend = 0.47)  
α-Cryptoxanthin    
   ≤ 30.8 67/138 1.00  
   30.9 to 38.9 79/126 1.28 0.84 to 1.96
   39.0 to 49.5 71/135 1.10 0.72 to 1.68
   ≥ 49.6 69/136 1.08 0.68 to 1.70
   (Ptrend = 0.96)  
trans-β-Cryptoxanthin    
   ≤ 93.8 69/137 1.00  
   93.9 to 169.0 77/127 1.22 0.81 to 1.85
   169.1 to 293.7 61/145 0.85 0.55 to 1.33
   ≥ 293.8 79/126 1.36 0.85 to 2.16
   (Ptrend = 0.30)  
cis-β-Cryptoxanthin    
   ≤ 36.4 69/136 1.00  
   36.5 to 53.9 72/133 1.08 0.71 to 1.64
   54.0 to 87.0 67/139 0.96 0.62 to 1.50
   ≥ 87.1 78/127 1.27 0.81 to 1.99
   (Ptrend = 0.28)  
Retinol    
   ≤ 842.6 66/139 1.00  
   842.7 to 997.9 76/130 1.29 0.85 to 1.95
   998.0 to 1,187.9 72/133 1.18 0.75 to 1.86
   ≥ 1,188.0 72/133 1.13 0.73 to 1.76
   (Ptrend = 0.73)  
Total tocopherols    
   ≤ 14,413.3 78/128 1.00  
   14,413.4 to 17,909.5 73/132 0.95 0.63 to 1.42
   17,909.6 to 23,282.3 63/142 0.74 0.48 to 1.14
   ≥ 23,282.4 72/133 0.86 0.56 to 1.31
   (Ptrend = 0.44)  
α-Tocopherol    
   ≤ 11,828.1 80/125 1.00  
   11,828.2 to 16,021.0 68/138 0.79 0.52 to 1.20
   16,021.1 to 21,829.8 66/138 0.75 0.49 to 1.16
   ≥ 21,829.9 72/134 0.80 0.52 to 1.24
   (Ptrend = 0.42)  
β + γ-Tocopherol    
   ≤ 619.0 64/142 1.00  
   619.1 to 1,243.2 71/134 1.24 0.80 to 1.91
   1,243.3 to 2,175.2 76/129 1.32 0.87 to 2.02
   ≥ 2,175.3 75/130 1.40 0.86 to 2.27
   (Ptrend = 0.22)  
δ-Tocopherol    
   ≤ 190.1 71/134 1.00  
   190.2 to 257.1 60/145 0.78 0.48 to 1.25
   257.2 to 339.2 85/121 1.35 0.82 to 2.22
   ≥ 339.3 70/135 0.99 0.58 to 1.70
   (Ptrend = 0.57)  
  1. aLinear dose–response in the logit of risk was tested by a Wald test for each biomarker modeled as a trend variable assigned the median value of the appropriate category. bControls (n = 535) were women matched to cases (n = 286) on geographic area, ethnicity, year of birth, date and time of specimen collection, fasting status, and hormone therapy use. cAdjusted by conditional logistic regression with matched sets as strata, with additional adjustment for age at blood draw and fasting hours prior to blood draw (as continuous variables), as well as body mass index, alcohol use, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first birth, and number of full-term pregnancies.