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Table 1 Characteristics of breast cancer cases and controls

From: Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: a nested case-control study

General characteristic Cases (n = 286) Controls (n = 535)
Age at blood draw (years)a 66.0 (8.1) 66.0 (8.0)
Fasting hours prior to blood drawa 13.1 (1.9) 13.0 (1.8)
Current hormone therapy usea 99 (35%) 185 (35%)
Ethnicitya   
   African American 35 (12%) 65 (12%)
   Caucasian 59 (21%) 111 (21%)
   Japanese American 116 (40%) 213 (40%)
   Latina 45 (16%) 86 (16%)
   Native Hawaiian 31 (11%) 60 (11%)
High school education or less 97 (34%) 189 (35%)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.6 (4.9) 25.4 (5.4)
Nulliparous 35 (12%) 58 (11%)
Number of full-term pregnancies 2.7 (1.8) 2.8 (1.8)
Age at first childbirth 23.8 (4.6) 23.5 (4.5)
Age at menarche 13.0 (1.6) 13.1 (1.6)
Age at natural menopause 49.1 (5.1) 49.5 (4.7)
Smoking status   
   Never 159 (56%) 334 (63%)
   Former 90 (32%) 146 (27%)
   Current 35 (12%) 52 (10%)
Pack-years of smoking 6.2 (11.2) 5.4 (11.0)
Mother or sister with breast cancer 31 (11%) 68 (13%)
Alcohol use   
   Never 170 (60%) 347 (65%)
   Ever, below users' median (< 3.4 g/day) 58 (20%) 95 (18%)
   Ever, above users' median (> 3.4 g/day) 58 (20%) 93 (17%)
Hours in moderate or vigorous physical activity per day 1.2 (1.3) 1.2 (1.3)
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or n (%). aMatching variable.