Inhibitor of apoptosis levels in patient samples. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) levels in breast cancer biopsy samples and in samples of normal breast (N1 to N3) from reduction mammoplasties were examined by immunoblotting with the relevant antibodies. (a) XIAP was detected using enhanced chemiluminescence, blots were then stripped and reprobed for cytokeratin 18 (CK18). (b) cIAP1 and (c) cIAP2 and Survivin were detected using the Li-Cor Odyssey™ system. Blots were simultaneously probed for Desmoplakin. Prognostic indicators were determined in the clinic. ER, oestrogen receptor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; +, positive; -, negative; nd, not determined.