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Table 3 Difference in mammographic measures associated with a twofold increase in plasma biomarker levels

From: Sex steroids, growth factors and mammographic density: a cross-sectional study of UK postmenopausal Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean women

  Mammographic density (%) Dense area (cm2) Nondense area (cm2)
  Adjustment 1a Adjustment 2b Adjustment 1a Adjustment 2b Adjustment 1a Adjustment 2b
Leptinc (per 9 ng/ml increase) -4.2 (-5.6, 2.8)**** -1.2 (-3.4, 0.9) -1.5 (-4.0, 1.0) -0.6 (-4.3, 3.1) 41.0 (33.1, 49.0)**** 10.1 (1.2, 18.9)**
Oestradiol -3.1 (-4.5, -1.6)**** -1.2 (-2.8, 0.4) -1.8 (-4.3, 0.7) -1.3 (-4.1, 1.4) 22.4 (13.8, 31.1)**** 2.9 (-3.6, 9.5)
Free oestradiol -3.2 (-4.5, -1.8)**** -1.2 (-2.7, 0.4) -1.9 (-4.1, 0.4) -1.5 (-4.1, 1.1) 24.1 (16.4, 31.7)**** 2.4 (-3.7, 8.6)
Oestrone -3.9 (-5.9, -1.9)**** -2.0 (-4.1, 0.0)* -3.6 (-6.8, -0.4)** -2.9 (-6.3, 0.5)* 20.6 (8.4, 32.8)*** 1.0 (-7.3, 9.4)
SHBG 4.1 (1.4, 6.9)*** 0.2 (-2.4, 2.8) 2.3 (-1.7, 6.2) 1.5 (-2.9, 5.9) -28.9 (-38.9, -18.9)**** 0.2 (-9.3, 9.7)
Testosterone -2.2 (-3.7, -0.7)*** -1.4 (-2.9, 0.1)* -1.8 (-4.2, 0.6) -1.7 (-4.1, 0.8) 11.3 (2.8, 19.7)*** 3.4 (-2.5, 9.3)
Prolactin 2.2 (-0.1, 4.4)* 1.7 (-0.3, 3.7)* 1.8 (-1.5, 5.2) 1.7 (-1.6, 5.0) -11.2 (-21.0, -1.4)** -7.7 (-14.6, -0.8)**
IGF-I 2.0 (-1.1, 5.0) 0.8 (-1.9, 3.5) 0.5 (-3.9, 4.9) 0.3 (-4.1, 4.7) -10.6 (-24.3, 3.0) -1.6 (-11.7, 8.5)
IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratio 2.2 (-1.1, 5.5) -0.2 (-3.1, 2.7) 0.7 (-4.0, 5.5) 0.0 (-4.7, 4.8) -14.3 (-28.7, 0.1)* 5.0 (-6.3, 16.3)
IGF-II -0.9 (-4.3, 2.4) -1.0 (-4.1, 2.0) -2.6 (-7.5, 2.2) -2.8 (-7.6, 2.0) -1.1 (-18.2, 16.0) 0.0 (-12.0, 12.0)
IGF-II:IGFBP-3 molar ratio -1.2 (-4.7, 2.4) -2.7 (-5.8, 0.4) -2.8 (-8.0, 2.4) -3.7 (-8.8, 1.4) -4.3 (-22.4, 13.8) 9.7 (-3.8, 23.2)
IGFBP-3 0.2 (-4.2, 4.5) 2.3 (-2.0, 6.5) -0.3 (-6.8, 6.2) -0.6 (-6.1, 7.3) 4.3 (-17.7, 26.4) -12.7 (-27.1, 1.7)*
  1. Statistics presented as difference (95% confidence interval). IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, IGF binding protein; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin. aAdjusted for age at blood collection and age at mammography, batch, and ethnic group. bAdjusted for age at blood collection and age at mammography, batch, ethnic group, and body mass index. cArithmetic scale, leptin was not log transformed. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01, ****P < 0.001.