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Table 1 Distributions of breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer biomarkers by ethnic group

From: Sex steroids, growth factors and mammographic density: a cross-sectional study of UK postmenopausal Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean women

  Caucasian women (n = 152) Afro-Caribbean women (n = 118)
Lifestyle breast cancer risk factorsa   
   Age at mammography (years) 57.8 (3.3) 58.1 (3.6)
   Age arrived in UK (years) - 20.9 (9.0)
   Age at menarche (years) 12.7 (1.5) 13.5 (2.0)
   Percentage nulliparous 22.2 6.0
   Age at first birth (years) 24.4 (5.8) 22.2 (5.2)
   Age at menopause (years) 50.1 (4.8) 48.3 (5.4)
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.2 (5.4) 29.4 (5.4)
   Percentage previous hormone therapy use (ever) 35.5 24.6
   Percentage previous oral contraceptive use (ever) 72.2 40.4
   Percentage alcohol drinkers 86.1 57.4
   Percentage current smokers 13.3 4.3
   Percentage family history of breast cancer 17.8 11.9
Mammographic measuresb   
   Mammographic density (%) 16.2 (8.9 to 24.5) 8.3 (4.3 to 19.8)
   Dense area (cm2) 21.2 (11.9 to 35.7) 17.3 (8.4 to 31.3)
   Nondense area (cm2) 116.9 (86.7 to 160.0) 167.9 (115.3 to 235.9)
   Total breast area (cm2) 141.5 (108.1 to 193.3) 195.2 (140.2 to 261.5)
Plasma biomarkersc   
   Leptin (ng/ml) 12.3 (11.1, 13.5)d 19.1 (17.5, 20.7)c
   Oestradiol (pmol/l) 21.7 (19.6, 23.9) 29.0 (25.6, 32.9)
   Free oestradiol (pmol/l) 0.31 (0.27, 0.34) 0.44 (0.38, 0.50)
   Oestrone (pmol/l) 72.9 (68.0, 78.2) 82.2 (74.9, 90.3)
   Sex hormone binding globulin (nmol/l) 49.2 (46.1, 52.4) 42.5 (39.1, 46.2)
   Testosterone (nmol/l) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) 0.89 (0.78, 1.02)
   Prolactin (mIU/l) 192 (177, 209) 193 (174, 213)
   IGF-I (ng/ml) 144 (137, 152) 157 (146, 168)
   IGF-I:IGFBP3 molar ratio 0.175 (0.166, 0.184) 0.199 (0.187, 0.213)
   IGF-II (ng/ml) 896 (857, 938) 742 (698, 789)
   IGF-II:IGFBP3 molar ratio 1.09 (1.04, 1.13) 0.94 (0.89, 1.00)
   IGFBP3 (ng/ml) 4286 (4125, 4452) 4097 (3920, 4282)
  1. IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, IGF binding protein. aData presented as mean (standard deviation) or percentage. bData presented as median (25th to 75th percentiles). cData presented as geometric mean (95% confidence interval). dArithmetic mean (variable was not log transformed).