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Table 7 Clinicopathological parameters in relation to EDN3 promoter methylation

From: Frequent loss of endothelin-3 (EDN3) expression due to epigenetic inactivation in human breast cancer

Variables EDN3 promoter
  Numbera Unmethylated (percentage) Methylated (percentage) P valueb
Total 128 39 (30.5) 89 (69.5)  
Clinicopathological factors     
   Age at diagnosis     
≤ 59 years 64 22 (34) 42 (66) 0.443
> 59 years 64 17 (29) 47 (71)  
   Tumour sizec     
pT1 44 15 (34) 29 (66) 0.680
pT2 to pT4 72 21 (29) 51 (71)  
   Lymph node statusc     
pN0 57 16 (28) 41 (72) 0.676
pN1 to pN3 51 17 (33) 34 (67)  
   Histological grade     
G1 and G2 68 18 (26) 50 (74) 0.310
G3 49 18 (37) 31 (63)  
   Histological type     
Ductal 103 32 (31) 71 (69) 0.849
Lobular 15 5 (33) 10 (67)  
Other 6 1 (17) 5 (83)  
   Immunohistochemistry     
Oestrogen receptor     
Negative (IRSd ≤ 2) 33 11 (33) 22 (67) 0.655
Positive (IRS > 2) 85 24 (28) 61 (72)  
   Progesterone receptor     
Negative (IRSd ≤ 2) 33 11 (33) 22 (67) 0.655
Positive (IRS > 2) 85 24 (28) 61 (72)  
  1. aOnly female patients with primary invasive breast cancer were included. bFisher exact test (two-sided). cAccording to the UICC (Union Internationale contre le Cancer): TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours [19]. dImmunoreactivity score (IRS) according to Remmele and Stegner [24]. EDN3, endothelin-3.