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Figure 3 | Breast Cancer Research

Figure 3

From: Estrogen regulation of apoptosis: how can one hormone stimulate and inhibit?

Figure 3

Summary of some of the key processes regulated in the cytoplasm, at the mitochondria, in the nucleus, or in the cytosol by the PI3K/Akt pathway in controlling apoptosis. The positive events controlled either directly or indirectly by PI3K/Akt are indicated by arrows, whereas blocked lines represent events that have inhibitory effects. Bad, Bcl-2/Bcl-X L -associated death domain protein; Bax, Bcl-2-associated X protein; Bcl-X L , Bcl-2-related gene, long form; Bim, Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death; FasL, Fas ligand; IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis; IκB, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa-B; IKK, IκB (inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa-B) kinase; Mcl-1, myeloid cell leukemia 1; Mdm2, murine double minute; NF-κB, nuclear factor-kappa-B; p53, 53 kDa protein; PDK-1, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKB/Akt, protein kinase B.

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