Active PKD1 regulates the expression of invasion-relevant MMPs. (a) MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with vector control or constitutively-active protein kinase D (PKD) 1 (PKD1active, PKD1.Y463E mutant). After 16 hours mRNA was isolated and the expression of the matrix mettaloproteinases (MMP) MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-11, MMP-12, MMP-13, MMP-14, MMP-15 and MMP-16, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) TIMP1 and TIMP2 and actin (control) was analysed by RT-PCR (shown as a PCR reaction with 35 cycles; PCR reaction with 20 and 40 cycles showed similar results). (b,c) MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with vector control or constitutively-active PKD1 (PKD1active, PKD1.Y463E mutant). After 48 hours supernatants were collected and used for (b) zymographic analysis or (c) western blot analysis for MMP-9 expression.