Heatmap of expression patterns of ductal carcinoma in situ-associated and invasive ductal carcinoma-associated genes. (a) Heatmap of 849 genes with >3-fold differential expression in either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus normal breast or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) versus normal breast in the epithelium. (b) Heatmap of 557 genes with >3-fold differential expression in either ductal carcinoma in situ-associated stroma (DCIS-S) versus normal stromal compartment or invasive ductal carcinoma-associated stroma (IDC-S) versus normal stromal compartment. Data shown are log2(fold change) relative to the average expression in normal controls (normal breast epithelium or normal stromal compartment). In each heatmap, genes (rows) are hierarchically clustered using 1 – Pearson correlation as the distance metric. IS, ductal carcinoma in situ; INV, invasive ductal carcinoma; ISS, ductal carcinoma in situ-associated stroma; INVS, invasive ductal carcinoma-associated stroma.