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Table 4 Associations between digoxin treatment and incident breast cancer

From: Digoxin treatment is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study

Exposure categories Cases (n = 5,565) Controls (n = 55,650) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusteda OR (95% CI)
Ever/never prescribed digoxin:     
   Ever user 324 2,546 1.29 (1.14 to 1.45) 1.30 (1.14 to 1.48)
   Never user 5,241 53,104 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
Duration of digoxin therapy:b     
   7 to 18 years 93 694 1.35 (1.10 to 1.69) 1.39 (1.10 to 1.74)
   4 to 6 years 103 811 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58) 1.30 (1.05 to 1.61)
   1 to 3 years 128 1,041 1.25 (1.03 to 1.50) 1.25 (1.03 to 1.52)
   Never user 5,241 53,104 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
Ever/never prescribed digoxin (alternate reference group): (n = 732) (n = 7,086)   
   Ever user 324 2,546 1.42 (1.21 to 1.65) 1.42 (1.14 to 1.77)
   Never userc 408 4,540 1.0 (Ref) 1.0 (Ref)
  1. aAdjusted for age (continuous), county of residence (categorical), and past receipt of hormone replacement therapy, anticoagulants, high- and low-dose aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ever/never); byears elapsed between first digoxin prescription and index date (approximate tertiles of the distribution); cthe alternate reference group is additionally defined by a history of myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or any combination thereof. See text for rationale.
  2. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.