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Table 1 Identification of resistance

From: Identification and mechanisms of endocrine resistance

Mechanism Phenotype Assessment
Inherent resistance ER negativity ER measurement
  Defective ER ER read-outs
  Alternative growth signalling GF/receptor assays
ER modified ER phosphorylation Phosphorylation status
  ER co-activators ER read-outs
  ER co-repressors  
Ineffective treatment Inherent lack of potency Target read-outs
  Compensatory mechanisms Target read-outs
  Poor pharmacokinetics Pharmacogenetics
  1. ER, oestrogen receptor; GF, growth factor.