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Figure 2 | Breast Cancer Research

Figure 2

From: Multifunctional roles of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 in breast cancer

Figure 2

Overview of the insulin-like growth factor-I signaling pathway involved in breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) activates both the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine–threonine kinase (AKT) pathways, and causes cell growth and proliferation. ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; GSK, glycogen synthase kinase; IGF-IR, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; IRS-1, insulin receptor substrate; MEK1/2, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homologue; Shc, GRB2, SOS1, adaptor proteins.

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