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Table 3 Association between phytoestrogen biomarkers and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk study

From: Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

  Serum (ng/ml) Urine (μg/mmol creatinine)
  Odds ratio 95% confidence interval P value Odds ratio 95% confidence interval P value
Full study (219 cases/891 controls) (198 cases/797 controls)
   Total isoflavones 1.03 0.95 to 1.11 0.479 1.08 1.00 to 1.16 0.055
   Total lignans 0.99 0.90 to 1.08 0.728 1.01 0.94 to 1.09 0.758
   Daidzein 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.225 1.05 0.99 to 1.10 0.096
   Equol 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.167 1.03 0.99 to 1.06 0.131
o-Desmethylangolensin 1.03 0.97 to 1.09 0.390 1.02 0.98 to 1.06 0.250
   Genistein 1.00 0.94 to 1.05 0.911 1.01 0.97 to 1.05 0.706
   Glycitein 1.03 0.97 to 1.10 0.345 1.03 0.98 to 1.07 0.248
   Enterodiol 1.02 0.96 to 1.09 0.461 1.01 0.96 to 1.05 0.772
   Enterolactone 0.98 0.91 to 1.05 0.564 0.99 0.94 to 1.04 0.718
Oestrogen receptor-positive subgroup (105 cases/365 controls) (95 cases/329 controls)
   Total isoflavones 1.01 0.91 to 1.12 0.818 1.09 0.97 to 1.22 0.154
   Total lignans 1.02 0.89 to 1.17 0.774 1.12 0.99 to 1.28 0.083
   Daidzein 1.05 0.97 to 1.13 0.260 1.03 0.96 to 1.10 0.468
   Equol 1.01 0.93 to 1.09 0.887 1.07 1.01 to 1.12 0.013
o-Desmethylangolensin 1.05 0.96 to 1.14 0.314 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.192
   Genistein 0.99 0.92 to 1.06 0.775 1.00 0.94 to 1.05 0.882
   Glycitein 1.03 0.93 to 1.13 0.614 1.04 0.98 to 1.10 0.186
   Enterodiol 1.00 0.92 to 1.09 0.990 1.04 0.98 to 1.11 0.235
   Enterolactone 1.01 0.91 to 1.14 0.806 1.08 0.98 to 1.19 0.115
  1. Values are log2-transformed and adjusted for weight, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone treatment, menopausal status, parity, menarche, breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, daily intake of fat and energy, and batch.