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Table 2 Mean and median serum and urinary phytoestrogen levels in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk breast cancer case – control study

From: Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk cohort study

  Median % detected Median % detected P valuea
Full study Controls (n = 952) Cases (n = 237)  
   Serum (ng/ml)      
Genistein 5.00 91 4.77 93 0.608
Daidzein 2.00 86 1.98 91 0.206
Equol 0.01 29 0.01 33 0.005
o-Desmethylangolensin 0.10 52 0.10 59 0.284
Glycitein 0.01 29 0.01 40 <0.0001
Enterodiol 0.10 58 0.20 68 0.023
Enterolactone 5.83 98 5.00 98 0.088
   Urine (μg/mmol creatinine) Controls (n = 851) Cases (n = 213)  
Genistein 5.71 84 6.47 86 0.071
Daidzein 14.82 92 14.63 94 0.134
Equol 0.011 47 0.011 52 0.403
o-Desmethylangolensin 0.92 73 0.58 75 0.486
Glycitein 0.62 69 1.29 79 <0.0001
Enterodiol 6.45 86 7.25 91 0.188
Enterolactone 112.70 97 102.07 97 0.366
Oestrogen receptor-positive subgroup Controls (n = 381) Cases (n = 112)  
   Serum (ng/ml)      
Genistein 4.80 89 4.55 89 0.446
Daidzein 1.83 84 1.89 87 0.846
Equol 0.01 37 0.01 41 0.637
o-Desmethylangolensin 0.10 51 0.10 56 0.569
Glycitein 0.01 25 0.01 29 0.372
Enterodiol 0.10 59 0.17 61 0.645
Enterolactone 6.60 98 6.25 98 0.739
   Urine (μg/mmol creatinine) Controls (n = 344) Cases (n = 102)  
Genistein 5.67 84 4.74 80 0.675
Daidzein 15.30 93 13.09 92 0.948
Equol 0.04 51 0.46 61 0.073
o-Desmethylangolensin 1.29 70 1.02 72 0.899
Glycitein 0.51 65 0.56 70 0.195
Enterodiol 6.62 85 8.82 91 0.075
Enterolactone 123.99 97 136.55 99 0.044
  1. a P value from the Wilcoxon – Mann – Whitney test.