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Table 1 Examples of studies examining the prognostic relevance of disseminated tumor cells identified by immunocytochemistry in bone marrow of breast cancer patients without overt distant metastases (stage M0)

From: Micrometastatic spread in breast cancer: detection, molecular characterization and clinical relevance

Study (year) [reference] Detection rate (percent) Prognostic value (no. of patients)
Schlimok et al. (1987) [103] 18 DDFS (155)
Cote et al. (1991) [81] 37 DFS, OS (49)
Harbeck et al. [104] 38 DFS, OSa (100)
Diel et al. (1996) [82] 31 DFSa, OSa (727)
Molino et al. (1997) [105] 31 None (109)
Mansi et al. (1999) [83] 25 DFS, OS (350)
Braun et al. (2000) [10] 36 DFSa, OSa (552)
Gebauer et al. (2001) [4] 42 DFSa, OSa (393)
Gerber et al. (2001) [6] 31 DFSa, OSa (484)
Wiedswang et al. (2003) [22] 13 DDFSa, BCSSa (817)
Braun et al.: pooled analysis (2005) [8] 31 DDFSa, OSa (4,703)
  1. aConfirmed by multivariate analysis. BCSS, breast cancer-specific survival; DDFS, distant-DFS; DFS, disease-free survival; OS, overall survival.