A proposed mechanism for p,p'-DDE-induced proliferation of hormone-dependent cells. Lipophilic p,p'-DDE is stored in adipocytes and can diffuse to reach hormone-dependent cells. p,p'-DDE confers a proliferative advantage to precancerous hormone-dependent cells by blocking the androgen receptor (AR) signalling pathway that represses cell growth. Tumor development is favored through the upregulation of the oncogene CCND1, a key molecular event in the deregulation by p,p'-DDE of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and the AR. E2, 17 β-estradiol; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; p,p'-DDE, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene.