p,p'-DDE modulates the expression of sex-steroid-dependent genes in CAMA-1 cells at the mRNA level. mRNA levels were determined by a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction after a 24-hour treatment with hormones and antiandrogens (or vehicles) as described in Materials and methods. mRNAs for CCND1 (a), ESR1 (b), AR (c), and TFF1 (d) were quantified relative to β-actin mRNA. A representative gel electrophoresis is shown below each panel. Each bar represents the mean ± standard error of the mean of six independent experiments. Double asterisk indicates P < 0.01 versus control, †† indicates P < 0.01 versus E2 treatment, and ‡ and ‡‡ indicate, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 versus E2+DHT treatment as determined by an analysis of variance with specific contrasts. AR, androgen receptor; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; E2, 17β-estradiol; ERα, estrogen receptor alpha; OHF, hydroxyflutamide; p,p'-DDE, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene.