Effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells. E2 induces cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (a) while increasing concentrations of DHT inhibit the proliferative response triggered by 100 pM E2 (b). Cell proliferation was assessed after 9 days of treatment. Each bar represents the mean ± standard error of the mean of three (a) and four (b) independent experiments. Single asterisk indicates P < 0.05, double asterisk P < 0.01, and triple asterisk P < 0.001 versus E2 treatment by an analysis of variance followed by a one-tail Bonferroni post hoc test.