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Table 7 Studies assessing the association of maternal or paternal smoking and the risk of breast cancer

From: Intrauterine environments and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis and systematic review

Type of study Ref. Year Design Cases Controls (or cohort) Country/place of study Smoking status OR (95% CI) Comments
Case-control studies [69] 1996 PCC 53 470 USA Maternal smoking   Crude ORs
           No Referent  
           Yes 0.9 (0.4–2.1)  
        Paternal smoking   
           No Referent  
           Yes 1.3 (0.9–1.7)  
  [14] 1996 PCC 1,086 1,321 USA Maternal smoking   Adjusted for age, menopausal status, and maternal smoking; OR (95% CI) for maternal smoking among early-onset breast cancer patients (≤ 30 years old) was 1.9 (1.0–3.4)
        Age 21–45 years   
           No Referent  
           Yes 1.1 (0.9–1.3)  
        Age 50–64 years   
           No Referent  
           Yes 1.3 (0.9–2.1)  
  [58] 1997 PCC 522 484 USA Maternal smoking   Adjusted for age, study site, family history of breast cancer, breast biopsy, a combination variable including number of full-term births and age at first full-term pregnancy, age at menarche, menopausal status, body mass index, average lifetime alcohol consumption, and the number of mammograms
           No Referent  
           Yes 1.1 (0.8–1.4)  
  [33] 1998 PCC 507 433 USA Maternal smoking   Crude ORs
           No Referent  
           Yes 1.1 (0.9–1.5)  
  [43] 2001 LCC 319 768 USA Maternal smoking   Adjusted for attained age
           No Referent  
           Yes 2.7 (1.1–6.3)  
  [35]a 2002 PCC 1,535 1,534 USA Smoking   Adjusted for age and residential regions (states)
           No Referent  
           Paternal smoking 1.00 (0.88–1.13)  
           Maternal/parental smoking 1.10 (0.84–1.42)  
  [20] 2005 PCC 2380 2,497 Poland Maternal smoking   Unadjusted; recalculated
           No Referent  
           Yes (any exposure) 1.19 (0.97–1.47)  
        Paternal smoking   
           No Referent  
           Yes (any exposure) 0.90 (0.77–1.05)  
Cohort studies [31] 2006 Cohort 249 1,024 USA Maternal smoking Referent Adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnosis year, stage at diagnosis, and birth order, with exception of birth order, which is adjusted for maternal age Crude relative rates
           No 0.8 (0.5–1.1)  
           Yes (any exposure)   
  [68] 2005 Cohort 42 (3,989) USA Maternal smoking   
           No Referent  
           Yes (any exposure) 0.49 (0.29–1.03)  
           ≤ 15 cigarettes a day 0.33 (0.12–0.94)  
           >15 0.68 (0.26–1.73)  
  1. aTitus-Ernstoff and coworkers [35] classified three categories: nonparental smoking, either paternal or maternal smoking only or both parents smoking during pregnancy. Thus, in this study, the maternal or both parents smoking versus nonparental smoking can be regarded as maternal smoking versus no maternal smoking. Cohort, cohort study; LCC, case-control study by linkage with population data and cancer registry data; PCC, population-based case-control study.