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Table 2 Studies assessing the association of birth weight and the risk for breast cancer

From: Intrauterine environments and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis and systematic review

Type of study Ref. Year Design Cases Controls (or cohort) Country/place of study Birthweight (g) OR (95% CI) Comments
Case-control studies [42] 1988 PCC 153 461 USA 1,162–2,948 Referent Matched analysis; P for trend = 0.41
        2,949–3,340 0.65 (0.33–1.26)  
        3,341–4,451 0.76 (0.41–1.43)  
  [12]a 1992 LCC 458 1,197 Sweden <2,500 1.18 (0.60–2.33) Adjusted for age and birth date
        2,500–2,999 Referent  
        3,000–3,499 1.29 (0.90–1.91)  
        3,500–3,999 1.47 (1.00–2.18)  
        ≥ 4,000 1.23 (0.80–2.00)  
  [13] 1996 NCC 550 1,478 USA <2,500 0.56 (0.34–0.93) Adjusted for age
        2,500–2,999 0.68 (0.47–0.99)  
        3,000–3,499 0.71 (0.50–0.99)  
        3,500–3,999 0.85 (0.59–1.22)  
        ≥ 4,000 Referent  
  [14] 1996 PCC 922 1,194 USA Age 21–45 years:   Adjusted for age, menopausal status, and maternal smoking; P for trend = 0.06 among both groups. The OR (95% CI) for birth weight ≥ 4,000 g among patients with early-onset breast cancer (≤ 30 years old) was 3.3 (1.0–11.0)
           <2,500 1.3 (0.9–2.0)  
           2,500–2,999 Referent  
           3,000–3,499 1.3 (1.0–1.7)  
           3,500–3,999 1.2 (0.8–1.6)  
           ≥ 4,000 1.7 (1.1–2.5)  
        Age 50–64 years:   
        <2,500 0.9 (0.5–1.7)  
        2,500–2,999 Referent  
        3,000–3,499 1.1 (0.7–1.7)  
        3,500–3,999 0.8 (0.4–1.3)  
        ≥ 4,000 0.6 (0.3–1.1)  
  [32] 1997 NCC 1068 2,027 Sweden <2,500 0.80 (0.50–1.26) Adjusted for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, and pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, neonatal jaundice, severe prematurity, and twinship
        2,500–2,999 Referent  
        3,000–3,499 1.00 (0.79–1.28)  
        3,500–3,999 0.99 (0.77–1.26)  
        ≥ 4,000 1.04 (0.77–1.41)  
  [33] 1998 PCC 510 436 USA <2,500 1.2 (0.7–2.1) Crude ORs
        2,500–2,999 Referent  
        3,000–3,499 1.0 (0.7–1.5)  
        3,500–3,999 1.0 (0.7–1.5)  
        ≥ 4,000 1.3 (0.7–2.3)  
  [15] 2000 LCC 484 2,870 USA <1,500 1.59 (0.61–4.11) Crude ORs
        1,500–2,499 1.33 (0.94–1.90)  
        2,500–3,499 Referent  
        3,500–4,499 1.08 (0.87–1.34)  
        ≥ 4,500 3.29 (1.37–7.92)  
  [34] 2001 LTCC 87 87 Sweden <1,999 Referent Matched analysis by conditional logistic regression
        2,000–2,499 1.6 (0.6–4.0)  
        2,599–2,999 2.4 (0.9–6.2)  
        ≥ 3,000 1.6 (0.4–5.6)  
         (P trend = 0.05)  
  [43] 2001 LCC 319 768 USA <2,500 1.4 (0.55–3.4) Crude ORs. Higher birth weight (≥ 3,500 g) carried a marginal significantly higher risk for breast cancer (OR 1.76 [95% CI 0.90–3.35]) relative to lower birth weight (<3,500 g)
        2,500–3,750 Referent  
        ≥ 3,750 0.9 (0.50–1.6)  
  [16] 2001 LTCC 90 90 Sweden ≤ 2,000 Referent Crude ORs. Study subjects were women with opposite-sexed pair twins
        2,001–2,500 3.2 (0.8–12.6)  
        2,501–3,000 3.5 (1–13)  
        3,001–3,500 5.8 (1.3–25.7)  
        ≥ 3,501 12.1 (1.1–138.8)  
  [35] 2002 PCC 2,088 2,187 USA <2,500 1.10 (0.90–1.35) Adjusted for age and residential regions (states)
        2,500–2,999 0.90 (0.70–1.10)  
        3,000–3,499 Referent  
        3,500–3,999 1.07 (0.90–1.30)  
        4,000–4,499 0.89 (0.70–1.14)  
        ≥ 4,500 1.18 (0.90–1.51)  
  [44] 2002 PCC 288 350 China <2,500 0.9 (0.4–2.0) Adjusted for age income, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative, history of fibroadenoma, age at menarche, parity, and age at first live birth.
        2,500–2,999 Referent  
        3,000–3,499 1.1 (0.8–1.6)  
        3,500–3,999 0.8 (0.4–1.4)  
        ≥ 4,000 0.7 (0.4–1.4)  
  [17] 2002 LCC 373 1,150 USA <3,090 Referent Adjusted for parity and age at first birth. P for trend = 0.02
        3,090–3,410 1.1 (0.8–1.5)  
        3,420–3,720 1.2 (0.9–1.6)  
        ≥ 3,630 1.4 (1.1–1.9)  
  [18] 2003 LCC 881 3,423 Denmark <2,500 1.66 (1.00–2.51) Adjusted for mother's marital status, maternal age, and birth order
        2,500–2,999 0.83 (0.60–1.10)  
        3,000–3,499 Referent  
        3,500–3,999 0.98 (0.80–1.17)  
        ≥ 4,000 1.25 (1.00–1.55)  
  [19] 2004 NCC 89 238 Sweden 100 g increase 1.06 (1.00–1.12) Adjusted for gestational age, birth year, and maternal hypertension/proteinuria
  [45] 2004 LCC 2471 9801 USA <1,500 0.64 (0.40–1.11) Adjusted for age and maternal age at first birth
        1,500–1,999 1.05 (0.70–1.68)  
        2,000–2,499 1.02 (0.80–1.31)  
        2,500–3,499 Referent  
        3,500–3,999 0.97 (0.90–1.08)  
        4,000–4,499 0.93 (0.80–1.11)  
        ≥ 4,500 0.69 (0.40–1.09)  
  [36] 2004 PCC 196 167 USA All subjects:   Adjusted for age, race and sampling fractions, body mass index, household income, and maternal age. Tertiles are race specific with cutpoints derived from controls. White women: <3,062, 3,062–3,458, >3,458 g; black women: <3,146, 3,146–3,488, >3,488 g. Restricted data using birth weight measured in pounds and ounces and participant delivered in a medical facility by a physician
           Lower tertile 1.0 (0.6–1.7)  
           Central tertile Referent  
           Upper tertile 0.7 (0.4–1.2)  
        White, restricted   
        data:   
           Lower tertile 1.1 (0.5–2.4)  
           Central tertile Referent  
           Upper tertile 1.4 (0.6–2.0)  
  [20] 2006 PCC 2,386 2,502 Poland <2,500 Referent Adjusted for: age, education, age at menarche, menopausal status and age at menopause, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of full-term pregnancies, family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives, mammography screening, and current body mass index. Lower birth weight (<2,500 g) carries greater risk than birth weight of 2,500–4,000 g among women under 45 years old
        2,500–4,000 1.22 (0.92–1.62)  
        >4,000 1.54 (1.08–2.19)  
         (p-trend = 0.01)  
  [37] 2006 PCC 1,166 2,105 USA <2,495 1.19 (0.85–1.66) Adjusted for age (years), education (years), race, body mass index, history of breast benign disease, family history of breast cancer, lactation (months), age at menarche (years), age at first full-term pregnancy (years), age at menopause (years), parity
        2,495–3,130 Referent  
        3,131–3,855 0.97 (0.75–1.25)  
        >3,855 1.03 (0.74–1.44)  
Cohort studies [21] 1999 LCohort 57 152,590 Sweden <2,500 Referent Standardization for sex, age, and age-specific incidence rate
        2,500–3,999 1.3 (0.6–2.4)  
        4,000–4,499 1.2 (0.0–6.7)  
        ≥ 4,500 1.3 (0.7–2.3)  
  [22] 2000 Cohort 37 2,221 UK All ages   Adjusted for age. P for trend = 0.03 among premenopausal women
           <3,000 Referent  
           3,000–3,499 1.05 (0.41–2.71)  
           3,500–3,999 1.76 (0.72–4.33)  
           ≥ 4,000 2.02 (0.59–6.90)  
        Premenopausal ages   
           <3,000 Referent  
           3,000–3,499 1.99 (0.40–9.86)  
           3,500–3,999 3.26 (0.69–15.36)  
           ≥ 4,000 5.65 (0.95–33.84)  
  [38] 2001 LCohort 177 3,447 Sweden ≤ 2,000 Referent Crude hazard ratios
        2,001–2,500 1.4 (0.6–3.4)  
        2,501–3,000 1.9 (0.8–4.3)  
        3,001–3,500 1.5 (0.6–3.5)  
        ≥ 3,501 1.9 (0.7–5.0)  
  [39] 2001 Cohort 62 1260 Sweden ≤ 3,000 Referent Singleton only; adjusted for gestational age and cohort membership
        3,010–3,349 1.16 (0.47–2.87)  
        3,350–3,590 1.65 (0.71–3.86)  
        3,600–3,960 1.58 (0.67–3.72)  
        ≥ 4,000 1.57 (0.67–3.64)  
  [23] 2003 LCohort 63 5,352 Sweden <3,000 Referent Crude ORs;P for trend = 0.01
        3,000–3,499 1.46 (0.60–3.43)  
        3,500–3,999 2.09 (0.90–4.85)  
        ≥ 4,000 2.78 (1.10–7.15)  
  [24] 2003 LCohort 2,334 106,504 Denmark 1,000 g increase 9 (0.02–17)% Adjusted for age and calendar period. Additional adjustment for parity and age at first birth did not indicate confounding
  [25] 2003 LCohort 39 1483 Sweden 500–1,999 1.14 (0.70–1.85) Standardized incidence ratio (expected/observed)
        2,000–2,999 0.71 (0.40–1.15)  
        ≥ 3,000 2.55 (1.03–5.25)  
  [26]a 2004 LCohort 2,074 91,601 Denmark Median of each quintile   Adjusted for age and calendar period. No change in estimates when additionally adjusted for parity and age at first birth
           2.5 Referent  
           3.0 0.98 (0.85–1.13)  
           3.4 1.06 (0.93–1.20)  
           3.6 1.05 (0.87–1.27)  
           4.0 1.17 (1.02–1.33)  
  [27] 2004 Cohort 59 2,176 UK <3,000 Referent Adjusted for age; P for trend = 0.03
        3,000–3,499 1.37 (0.34–5.47)  
        3,500–3,999 2.18 (0.58–8.21)  
        ≥ 4,000 5.03 (1.13–22.47)  
  [28] 2005 LCohort 311 16,011 USA <3,040 Referent Adjusted for year of birth
        3,040–3,310 1.4 (1.0–2.1)  
        3,320–3,550 1.0 (0.6–1.5)  
        3,560–3,830 1.3 (0.9–1.9)  
        ≥ 3,840 1.5 (1.0–2.2)  
  [29]a 2005 LCohort 367 5,346 Sweden <50 years   
           <3,000 Referent  
           3,000–3,499 1.81 (0.77–4.26)  
           3,500–3,999 2.66 (1.09–6.46)  
           ≥ 4,000 4.00 (1.49–10.72)  
        ≥ 50 years   
           <3,000 Referent  
           3,000–3,499 0.86 (0.62–1.19)  
           3,500–3,999 1.06 (1.20–3.34)  
           ≥ 4,000 0.91 (0.57–1.46)  
  [40] 2006 Cohort 97 5,847 USA <3,000 0.98 (0.61–1.60) Adjusted for age
        3,000–3,499 Referent  
        ≥ 3,500 1.09 (0.66–1.80)  
  [30] 2006 Cohort 3,140 91,601 USA Premenopause   Adjusted for age: P for trend = 0.019
           <2,495 0.69 (0.50–0.94)  
           2,495–3,130 0.79 (0.64–0.97)  
           3,131–3,810 0.76 (0.63–0.93)  
           >3,810 Referent  
        Postmenopause:   Adjusted for age: P for trend = 0.99
           <2,495 1.04 (0.88–1.23)  
           2,495–3,130 1.00 (0.87–1.14)  
           3,131–3,855 1.05 (0.93–1.20)  
           >3,855 Referent  
  [31] 2006 Cohort 209 1,024 USA <2,500 0.9 (0.5–1.6) Hazard ratio; adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnosis year, stage at diagnosis, and birth order, with exception of birth order, which is adjusted for maternal age
        2,500–3,999 Referent  
        ≥ 4,000 1.8 (1.0–3.1)  
         (P trend = 0.1)  
  [41] 2007 Cohort 657 38,566 Sweden <2,500 0.65 (0.43–0.99) Adjusted for adult body mass index
        2,500–3,000 1.04 (0.86–1.25)  
        >3,000 Referent  
  1. Cohort, cohort study; LCC, case-control study with linkage with population and cancer registry data; LCohort, cohort study with linkage with population and cancer registry data; LTCCS, twin case-control study by using linkage with birth and cancer registry data; NCC, nested case-control study in cohort; PCC, population-based case-control study. aThe numbers of cases and controls were not shown in the original article.