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Table 1 Scoring pAkt expression determined by immunohistochemistry

From: Clinical significance of Akt and HER2/neu overexpression in African-American and Latina women with breast cancer

Author/Reference Method and cutoff level Antibody (company) Positive rate, type of cancer, (city)
Stål, et al. [37] >10% strong staining in tumor cells pAkt-Ser473 (Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY, USA) 27%, breast cancer, (Stockholm, Sweden)
Kirkegaard, et al. [36] Above median level of histoscore (inter-quartile range) pAkt-Ser473 (Biosource International, Camarillo, CA, USA) 51%, breast cancer, (Glasgow, UK)
Tokunaga, et al. [33] ≥ 10% of cytoplasm staining pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA) 34%, breast cancer, (Fukuoka, Japan)
Messersmith, et al. [39] Quantify by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS II, Chromavision, Inc). (combination of staining color, density, and darkness) as a continuous variable pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.) High level in tumor, colorectal cancer, (Maryland, USA)
Bose, et al. [40] Scoring as 0 to 2 according to intensity; 2 (overexpression) means staining more than normal cells pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.) 36%, breast cancer, (Los Angeles, CA, USA)
Massarelli, et al. [41] More than 15% cytoplasm staining pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.) 46%, tongue cancer, (Houston, TX, USA)
Ogino, et al. [42] Tumor cells were scored as negative or positive, using normal epithelial cells and lymphocytes as reference pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.) 14%, colorectal cancer, (Boston, MA, USA)
Schmitz, et al. [43] More than 45% tumor cells staining in nuclei pAkt-Ser473 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA, USA) 88%, breast cancer, (Essen, Germany)
Our study Combination of staining intensity and percentage of tumor cells as pAkt index, according to quartiles of pAkt index pAkt-Ser473 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.) 50%, breast cancer, (Los Angeles)