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Table 1 Combined relative risks for breast cancer associated with different classifications of mammographic density, study designs, and study populations from meta-analysis [3]

From: Mammographic density, breast cancer risk and risk prediction

  General population Symptomatic population
  Incidence studies Prevalence studies   
Classification Cases/Non-casesa RR (95% CI) Cases/Non-casesa RR (95% CI) Cases/Non-casesa RR (95% CI)
Wolfe parenchymal pattern 2,664/23,469b    2,169/32,184b   1,857/25,394b  
   N1 181/3,613 1.0 557/15,731 1.0 428/3,318 1.0
   P1 525/6,682 1.8 (1.4, 2.2) 519/9,684 1.3 (1.0, 1.5) 315/5,031 1.0 (0.77, 1.3)
   P2 1,162/10,433 3.1 (2.5, 3.7) 660/4,369 2.0 (1.3, 3.0) 526/5,128 1.5 (0.91, 2.4)
   DY 246/2,309 4.0 (2.5, 6.3) 294/2,216 2.4 (2.0, 3.0) 400/4,976 1.7 (1.0, 2.8)
Percentage mammographic density 4,508/8,342b    2,219/4,063b   160/160b  
   <5% 1,194/1,744c 1.0 643/1,182c 1.0 35/84c 1.0
   5%–24%   1.8 (1.5, 2.2)   1.4 (1.1, 1.8)   
   25%–49% 1,049/1,045 2.1 (1.7, 2.6) 589/835 2.2 (1.8, 2.8) 66/35 5.5 (2.8–11)
   50%–74%   2.9 (2.5, 3.4) 438/665 2.9 (2.3, 3.8) 34/23 4.8 (2.2–11)
   75%+ 1,211/999 4.6 (3.6, 5.9) 190/282 3.7 (2.7, 5.0) 25/18 4.3 (1.8–10)
BI-RADS 1,992/104,663b Vacekand Geller [30] Ziv et al. [57] 397/1,589b    
   Fatty 62/7,550 1.0 (Ref) 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) 20/134 1.0   
   Scattered density 950/52,379 2.2 (1.6, 3.0) 1.0 (Ref) 216/957 1.6 (0.9, 2.8)   
   Heterogeneous density 783/36,564 3.0 (2.2, 4.1) 1.3 (1.1, 1.5) 117/407 2.3 (1.3, 4.3)   
   Extremely dense 197/8,170 4.0 (2.8, 5.7) 20.1 (1.6, 2.8) 44/91 4.5 (1.9, 10.6)   
  1. aCases and controls from individual categories may not add to the overall number of cases and controls used in the meta-analysis since categories from individual studies did not always coincide with those presented in the meta-analysis. Only numbers of cases and controls from studies with these categories are presented and used for the calculation of prevalence. bTotal cases and noncases used in meta-analysis by McCormack and colleagues [3] for each classification and study type. cWhen possible, categories were combined to provide the maximum contribution of cases and controls from individual studies. BI-RADS, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System; CI, confidence interval; Ref, reference; RR, relative risk.