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Table 5 Association of the examined psychosocial factors with survival/recurrence

From: The effect of psychosocial factors on breast cancer outcome: a systematic review

  Survival Recurrence No impact
Coping    [9], [17], [23], [26]
Cognitive/role functioning + [29] + [29]a  
Beliefs about cancer incurability    [27]
Fighting spirit + [30] -[4] [14], [21], [29]
Stressful events -[29] + [12], -[13], -[25]b [6], [9], [13]c, [25]
Anxiety -[7] + [20] [4], [5], [8], [9], [14], [16], [21], [29], [30]
Hopelessness/helplessness -[7] + [4], + [10], + [21] [14], [21]d, [29], [30]
Joy + [11]   [5]
Depression/negative mood + [5], -[11], -[21], -[24], -[28], -[33]   [4], [8], [9], [13], [16], [25], [30], [29], [33]e
Perceived social support + [15], + [26], -[33]   [30], [33]f
Social support + [6]g, + [15]h, + [31], + [34]   [4], [10], [13], [23], [30], [34]i
Minimizing + [23], + [33]   
Repressive defensiveness/emotional constraints -[7], -[24], -[33]   [4], [21], [33]j
Adjustment + [18]k   [4], [8]
Fatalism/stoic acceptance   + [4] [14], [21], [26], [29], [30]
Positive constructing daydreaming -[7]   
Denial/avoidance + [29], -[33] -[4] [14], [21]
Locus of control    [8], [9], [18], [26], [30]
Anger/hostility + [5], -[9], -[11] + [9] [4], [8], [16], [29]
Vigor/activity    [5], [29]
Fatigue/inertia    [29]
Guilt + [5]   
Extroversion + [9]   [4]
Expressive activities + [9] -[9]  
Group participation (religious/non-religious) + [6]   [15], [19], [34]
Confusion/bewilderment    [29]
Somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, psychoticism + [5]   [4], [9], [16]
Self-esteem    [8], [9]
Hobbies + [19]   
Female child + [19]   
Marriage + [6], + [19], + [32]   [10], [15], [29], [34]
  1. The number in brackets is the number of the reference. Symbols: +, increased survival/recurrence; -, decreased survival/recurrence. aCognitive functioning. bPost-diagnosis. cDuring follow-up period. dAt 1 year follow up. eRecurrence. fNo impact on recurrence. gYounger age groups. hWhite women. iPost-diagnosis. jRecurrence. kSexual adjustment. Minimisation: elimination of the impact of cancer on social, work, and family life. Perceived emotional support: reflects participant's ability to talk about disease related distresses with family/friends. Locus of control: reflects patient's beliefs about whether health outcomes are under control of powerful others/random forces. Emotional defensiveness: suppression and control of emotions.