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Table 4 Spearman correlation coefficients (P values) between cord blood sex hormones, growth factors, and associated binding proteins and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell populations among different racial/ethnic groups

From: Correlation of umbilical cord blood hormones and growth factors with stem cell potential: implications for the prenatal origin of breast cancer hypothesis

Stem/progenitor cell measurement Estradiol Estriol Testosterone Sex hormone-binding globulin Progesterone Prolactin Insulin-like growth factor-1 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3
Both parents Caucasian (n = 147)
CD34+/103 MNC 0.12 (0.16) 0.16 (0.06) -0.04 (0.59) -0.18 (0.03) -0.01 (0.87) -0.05 (0.52) 0.24 (0.003) 0.12 (0.15)
CD34+CD38-/103 MNC 0.13 (0.12) 0.25 (0.002) 0.05 (0.53) -0.16 (0.05) -0.02 (0.80) -0.02 (0.80) 0.23 (0.004) 0.05 (0.58)
CD34+c-kit +/103 MNC 0.21 (0.03) 0.30 (0.001) 0.05 (0.61) -0.17 (0.07) -0.001 (0.99) 0.10 (0.29) 0.26 (0.005) 0.09 (0.32)
GM-CFU/103 MNC 0.11 (0.32) 0.24 (0.03) 0.13 (0.24) -0.16 (0.16) -0.02 (0.88) 0.13 (0.25) 0.24 (0.03) 0.07 (0.56)
Both parents African-American (n = 20)
CD34+/103 MNC -0.25 (0.28) -0.27 (0.24) -0.22 (0.34) -0.33 (0.16) -0.14 (0.57) -0.23 (0.32) 0.09 (0.71) 0.19 (0.41)
CD34+CD38-/103 MNC -0.25 (0.28) 0.008 (0.97) -0.08 (0.75) -0.32 (0.18) -0.10 (0.67) -0.02 (0.93) -0.003 (0.99) 0.86 (0.72)
CD34+c-kit +/103 MNC -0.40 (0.09) -0.38 (0.11) -0.31 (0.19) -0.42 (0.07) -0.23 (0.34) -0.34 (0.15) 0.12 (0.63) 0.30 (0.20)
GM-CFU/103 MNC -0.39 (0.15) -0.40 (0.14) -0.25 (0.36) -0.52 (0.04) -0.42 (0.12) -0.13 (0.63) -0.02 (0.94) 0.35 (0.20)
Both parents Asian-American (n = 39)
CD34+/103 MNC 0.14 (0.38) 0.09 (0.58) 0.22 (0.19) 0.08 (0.65) 0.15 (0.37) 0.19 (0.25) 0.15 (0.36) 0.06 (0.73)
CD34+CD38-/103 MNC 0.14 (0.93) 0.07 (0.66) 0.17 (0.29) 0.03 (0.86) 0.08 (0.62) 0.14 (0.40) 0.15 (0.35) 0.004 (0.98)
CD34+c-kit +/103 MNC 0.13 (0.42) 0.10 (0.53) 0.19 (0.24) 0.08 (0.64) 0.15 (0.35) 0.19 (0.26) 0.16 (0.35) 0.05 (0.75)
GM-CFU/103 MNC 0.26 (0.25) 0.22 (0.33) 0.24 (0.30) 0.26 (0.26) 0.24 (0.29) 0.09 (0.71) 0.31 (0.17) 0.06 (0.78)
Both parents Hispanic-American (n = 15)
CD34+/103 MNC 0.45 (0.10) -0.16 (0.58) -0.38 (0.17) -0.04 (0.90) -0.06 (0.83) 0.14 (0.63) 0.51 (0.05) 0.01 (0.97)
CD34+CD38-/103 MNC 0.60 (0.02) 0.24 (0.40) 0.01 (0.96) -0.21 (0.45) 0.09 (0.76) 0.14 (0.61) 0.38 (0.16) -0.11 (0.70)
CD34+c-kit +/103 MNC 0.38 (0.19) -0.05 (0.86) -0.35 (0.22) -0.19 (0.51) 0.16 (0.57) 0.23 (0.44) 0.62 (0.02) 0.07 (0.82)
GM-CFU/103 MNC -0.01 (0.98) -0.47 (0.24) -0.49 (0.22) -0.46 (0.26) 0.22 (0.61) -0.25 (0.55) 0.25 (0.55) -0.20 (0.63)
Parents of differing ethnicity/race (mixed) (n = 31)
CD34+/103 MNC -0.06 (0.74) -0.14 (0.46) -0.03 (0.85) -0.07 (0.71) 0.009 (0.96) 0.21 (0.25) 0.03 (0.87) 0.05 (0.80)
CD34+CD38-/103 MNC -0.19 (0.32) -0.18 (0.32) -0.08 (0.68) -0.03 (0.86) -0.05 (0.79) 0.33 (0.07) 0.08 (0.65) 0.25 (0.18)
CD34+c-kit +/103 MNC 0.03 (0.87) 0.005 (0.98) -0.002 (0.99) -0.08 (0.68) 0.004 (0.98) 0.19 (0.31) -0.04 (0.83) -0.02 (0.93)
GM-CFU/103 MNC 0.19 (0.38) 0.23 (0.27) 0.24 (0.27) -0.20 (0.34) 0.20 (0.34) 0.01 (0.95) 0.11 (0.62) 0.08 (0.72)
  1. Those correlation coefficients that are significant (P ≤ 0.05) are in boldface. GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-forming units; MNC, mononuclear cells.