Characterisation of cancer and normal mammary fibroblast lines. (a) No α-SMA detected in control GM847 skin fibroblasts (lane 1), but α-SMA was detected in NMFs (lane 2) and in CAFs (lane 3), with an average 2.7-fold increase in band densities for CAFs compared to NMFs. (b) FAP was expressed by both NMFs and CAFs (lanes 2 and 3, respectively), but it was not detected in control GM847 skin fibroblasts (lane 1). An average 2-fold increase in band density for CAFs, compared with NMFs, was observed. CAF, cancer-associated fibroblast; FAP, fibroblast activation protein; NMF, normal mammary fibroblast; SMA, smooth muscle actin.