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Table 1 Cytokines are overexpressed in breast cancer

From: Oestrogen receptor negative breast cancers exhibit high cytokine content

Biological markers Median protein (range; fg/μg) P
  Cancer (n = 105) Healthy breast (n = 13)  
IL-1β 2.7 (0–260) 0 < 0.0001
IL-2 1.2 (0–42.6) 0 < 0.0001
IL-4 1.7 (0–99.6) 0 < 0.0001
IL-5 0 0  
IL-6 17.2 (4.4–26,487) 1.2 (0–52.5) < 0.0001
IL-7 0.7 (0–8.5) 1.1 (0.7–16.9) 0.047
IL-8 68.1 (0–15,890) 1 (0–78.5) < 0.0001
IL-10 0.3 (0–5.6) 0 < 0.0001
IL-12 (p70) 2.3 (0–19.3) 1.4 (0.5–20.4) 0.005
IL-13 4.2 (1.6–394) 1.9 (1.2–21.6) < 0.0001
IL-17 0 0  
G-CSF 18.7 (5.3–110) 0 (0–49.2) < 0.0001
GM-CSF 0 0  
IFN-γ 27.6 (15.5–1,279) 16.6 (13.6–187) < 0.0001
MCP-1 121 (0–37117) 1.9 (0–45.9) < 0.0001
MIP-1β 559 (42.6–14,439) 8.3 (5.0–142) < 0.0001
TNF-α 7.2 (5.8–121) 1.6 (1.3–23.2) < 0.0001
  1. G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.