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Table 1 Summary of proteomic approaches used to analyze plasma for breast cancer biomarkers

From: High-throughput genomic technology in research and clinical management of breast cancer. Plasma-based proteomics in early detection and therapy

Approaches   Examples Pros Cons
Nondirected/global Identification based Tandem MS Unbiased searches
Protein identities are determined
Highly reproducible
Requires fractionation and/or depletion/enrichment to overcome limited dynamic range
Time intensive
  Pattern based MALDI-TOF-MS High throughput
Potentially applicable for clinical use
Unbiased searches
Protein identities not determined, making validation difficult
Identified proteins have been high-abundance immune and clotting factors
     Low reproducibility between laboratories
Target specific   Western/ELISA/antibody arrays Relatively high throughput
Clinically applicable
Identity of proteins is known
Limited antibody availability
Untargeted proteins will remain undetected
  1. ELISA, enzyme-linked immunoisorbent assay; MALDI, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization; MS, mass spectrometry; TOF, time-of-flight.