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Table 2 Selected variables in relation to leptin and absolute mammographic densitya

From: Plasma levels of leptin and mammographic density among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

  n Leptin concentration (ng/ml) Leptin concentration (ng/ml) adjusted for BMIb P valuec Absolute mammographic density (cm2) Absolute mammographic density (cm2) adjusted for BMIb P valuec
Age in tertiles (n = 967)        
   55–58 years 318 14.0 (12.9–15.2) 13.4 (12.5–14.4)   13.3 (11.6–15.2) 12.6 (11.0–14.4)  
   59–63 years 340 14.4 (13.3–15.6) 13.6 (12.7–14.6)   10.9 (9.6–12.4) 10.3 (9.0–11.7)  
   64–71 years 309 14.1 (13.0–15.3) 13.4 (12.5–14.4) 0.98 10.5 (9.2–12.1) 10.1 (8.8–11.5) 0.01
Number of full-term pregnancies (n = 967)        
   0 69 14.7 (12.4–17.5) 14.9 (12.9–17.2)   19.7 (15.0–26.1) 18.1 (13.9–23.7)  
   1–2 385 12.9 (12.0–13.8) 12.6 (11.8–13.4)   13.8 (12.3–15.5) 13.0 (11.5–14.7)  
   3 309 14.6 (13.5–15.9) 14.2 (13.2–15.3)   11.4 (10.0–13.0) 10.6 (9.3–12.19  
   4 and more 204 15.9 (14.4–17.6) 13.8 (12.6–15.0) 0.30 6.8 (5.8–8.0) 6.8 (5.8–8.0) <0.001
Age at first birth (n = 898) (82 have imputed values)        
   < 20 years 129 16.3 (14.4–18.5) 14.4 (12.9–16.0)   7.2 (5.9–8.9) 7.1 (5.8–8.7)  
   20–24 years 535 14.1 (13.2–15.0) 13.2 (12.5–14.0)   10.9 (9.9–12.1) 10.2 (9.2–11.4)  
   >24 years 234 13.1 (12.0–14.4) 12.7 (11.7–14.0) 0.08 14.2 (12.1–16.5) 13.3 (11.4–15.5) <0.001
Postmenopausal hormone use (n = 967)        
   Current use 253 13.5 (12.3–14.8) 13.5 (12.5–14.6)   16.7 (14.4–19.3) 15.1 (13.0–17.6)  
   Current nonuse 714 14.4 (13.6–15.2) 13.5 (12.8–14.2) 0.97 10.1 (9.2–11.0) 9.8 (8.9–10.7) <0.001
Smoking (n = 906)        
   Current nonsmoking 638 15.5 (14.7–16.4) 14.1 (13.4–14.8)   11.6 (10.6–12.8) 11.6 (10.5–12.8)  
   Current daily smoking 268 11.4 (10.4–12.4) 12.4 (11.5–13.4) 0.01 11.2 (9.7–13.0) 9.4 (8.1–10.9) 0.02
Alcohol consumption (100 g alcohol/month) (n = 877)        
   No alcohol 225 14.0 (12.7–15.4) 13.1 (12.1–14.2)   10.4 (8.9–12.2) 10.4 (8.9–12.1)  
   Lower tertile (<0.42) 206 14.5 (13.1–16.0) 13.8 (13.0–15.1)   10.5 (8.9–12.4) 9.9 (8.4–11.7)  
   Mid tertile (0.42–1.1) 213 15.1 (13.6–16.6) 13.9 (12.7–15.1)   10.5 (8.9–12.3) 10.2 (8.7–12.1)  
   Upper tertile (>1.1) 233 13.5 (12.3–14.9) 13.7 (12.6–14.9) 0.48 14.2 (12.2–16.6) 12.7 (10.8–14.8) 0.06
BMI (n = 967)        
   <25 330 9.0 (8.4–9.6)    16.4 (14.5–18.6)   
   25–30 393 15.1 (14.2–16.0)    11.8 (10.5–13.3)   
   >30 244 23.8 (22.0–25.8)   <0.001 6.8 (5.8–7.8)   <0.001
Waist circumference in tertiles (n = 965)        
   <83.6 cm 323 9.1 (8.5–9.8)    16.3 (14.3–18.5)   
   83.6–94.1 cm 326 14.4 (13.4–15.4)    12.7 (11.2–14.4)   
   >94.1 cm 316 21.9 (20.4–23.5)   <0.001 7.3 (6.4–8.3)   <0.001
Mammographic nondense area in tertiles (n = 967)        
   <120.1 cm2 325 9.8 (9.1–10.6) 12.4 (11.5–13.4)   20.3 (18.0–22.9) 18.2 (15.8–20.9)  
   120.1–172.8 cm2 319 15.0 (14.0–16.2) 14.1 (13.1–15.2)   12.2 (10.8–13.8) 11.2 (9.8–12.9)  
   >172.8 cm2 323 19.3 (17.9–20.8) 14.1 (13.1–15.2) 0.03 6.1 (5.4–6.9) 6.4 (5.6–7.5) <0.001
Mammographic percentage density in tertiles (n = 967)        
   < 4.5% 322 17.5 (16.2–19.0) 13.4 (12.5–14.4)     
   4.5–15.5% 322 13.8 (12.7–14.9) 13.6 (12.7–14.6)     
   >15.5% 323 11.8 (10.9–12.7) 13.5 (12.5–14.5) 0.9    
  1. aAnalysis of variance. Leptin and absolute mammographic density were log-transformed, reported means are back-transformed
  2. bAdjusted for body mass index (BMI), categorized as <20, 20–22, 23–24, 25–26, 27–28, 29–31, 32–34, >34.
  3. cFor dichotomous variables, P values were obtained from analysis of variance, otherwise P values were obtained from test for trend. Analyses are adjusted for BMI; except for BMI and waist circumference, where the trend tests refer to the crude analyses.