Therapeutic targeting of the focal adhesion complex prevents oncogenic TGF-β signaling and metastasis
© Wendt and Schiemann; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 15 June 2009
Accepted: 9 September 2009
Published: 9 September 2009
Mammary tumorigenesis is associated with the increased expression of several proteins in the focal adhesion complex, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and various integrins. Aberrant expression of these molecules occurs concomitant with the conversion of TGF-β function from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. We previously showed that interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II facilitates TGF-β-mediated oncogenic signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the focal adhesion complex contributes to β3 integrin:TβR-II signaling and the oncogenic conversion of TGF-β remain poorly understood.
FAK expression and activity were inhibited in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) either genetically by using lentiviral-mediated delivery of shRNAs against FAK, or pharmacologically through in vitro and in vivo use of the FAK inhibitors, PF-562271 and PF-573228. Altered Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK activation, migration, EMT, and invasion in response to TGF-β1 were monitored in FAK-manipulated cells. TβR-II expression was increased in metastatic breast cancer cells by retroviral transduction, and the metastasis of FAK- and TβR-II-manipulated tumors was monitored by using bioluminescent imaging.
TGF-β stimulation of MECs stabilized and activated FAK in a β3 integrin- and Src-dependent manner. Furthermore, by using the human MCF10A breast cancer progression model, we showed that increased FAK expression in metastatic breast cancer cells mirrored the acquisition of enhanced activation of p38 MAPK by TGF-β. Administering FAK inhibitors or rendering metastatic breast cancer cells FAK deficient abrogated the interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II, thereby preventing TGF-β from (a) activating p38 MAPK; (b) stimulating MEC invasion, migration, and EMT; and (c) inducing early primary tumor dissemination to the lungs. Finally, in contrast to FAK depletion, adjuvant FAK chemotherapy of mammary tumors decreased their growth in part by diminished macrophage tumor infiltration.
Our studies identify an essential function for FAK in mediating the interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II, and thus in facilitating the oncogenic conversion of TGF-β required for mammary tumor metastasis. Furthermore, this study establishes chemotherapeutic targeting of FAK as an effective, two-pronged approach in preventing tumor progression both by decreasing innate immune cell infiltration, and by inhibiting early TGF-β-dependent metastasis.
Invasion and metastasis are the most lethal characteristics of breast cancer [1, 2]. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a powerful suppressor of mammary tumorigenesis through its ability to repress mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, as well as through its creation of cellular microenvironments that inhibit MEC motility, invasion, and metastasis. During breast cancer progression, the tumor-suppressing function of TGF-β is frequently subverted, thus transforming TGF-β from a suppressor of breast cancer formation to a promoter of its growth and metastasis [2–4]. Indeed, how TGF-β both suppresses and promotes tumorigenesis remains an unknown and fundamental question that directly affects the ability of science and medicine to target effectively the TGF-β signaling system during the treatment of human malignancies. Deciphering this paradox remains the most important question concerning the biologic and pathologic actions of this multifunctional cytokine .
FAK is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) whose amino acid sequence is about 90% homologous between humans, chickens, mice, and frogs . An essential function for FAK during mammalian development is evident in the lethality of FAK-deficient embryos at E8.5 , presumably due to an indispensable role of FAK in regulating cell migration , proliferation, and survival . Along these lines, aberrant FAK expression or activity also supports carcinoma cell metastasis by enhancing these same cellular processes in cancer cells , and possibly in cancer stem cells , to support tumor angiogenesis . Although it remains to be determined whether altered expression or subcellular localization of FAK possesses true prognostic value to cancer patients, recent studies do provide strong evidence associating increased FAK expression with the development and progression of mammary carcinomas [10, 12–15]. To this end, small-molecule inhibitors of FAK have recently been developed and show potent efficacy to inhibit FAK PTK activity specifically, as well as to decrease the growth of subcutaneous tumor xenografts [13, 16]. Despite these recent advances, the oncogenic signaling modules targeted by aberrant FAK expression and activity in developing and progressing breast cancers, and their potential role in regulating the activity and composition of associated tumor stroma remain to be fully defined.
We recently identified a critical αvβ3 integrin:TβR-II:Src:Grb2 signaling axis that mediates TGF-β stimulation of MAP kinases in normal and malignant MECs, leading to their acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasive, and metastatic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of this oncogenic signaling axis by TGF-β requires β3 integrin to form complexes with TβR-II [17–19]; however, whether the β3 integrin/TβR-II interaction is direct or mediated via an accessory protein remains unknown. The present study addresses this important question, as well as establishes the therapeutic effectiveness of inhibiting FAK PTK activity in a TGF-β-driven model of breast cancer metastasis.
Materials and methods
Cell lines and reagents
Normal murine NMuMG and metastatic 4T1 cells were obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA) and cultured as described previously . 4T1 cells were engineered to express stably firefly luciferase by their transfection with pNifty-CMV-luciferase  and selection with Zeocin (500 μg/ml; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). NMuMG cells expressing WT or the nonfunctional mutant D119A-β3 integrin were constructed by retroviral transduction, as described previously . The MCF10A cell derivates T1k, Ca1h, and Ca1a were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 5% horse serum. The construction of NMuMG and 4T1 cells lacking FAK was accomplished by their lentiviral-mediated transduction with a scrambled (i.e., nonsilencing shRNA) or verified FAK-specific shRNA sequence encoded in pLentilox3.7-puro . In brief, human 293T cells were transiently transfected with lentiviral packaging vectors (i.e., pMD2.G, pRRE, pRSV, and pLentiLox 3.7) according to standard protocols , and 48 h after transfection, the resulting conditioned medium was collected, filtered, and mixed with polybrene (8 μg/ml). Target cells were incubated in viral-containing supernatants for 48 h, and cells expressing nonsilencing or FAK-specific shRNAs were isolated by puromycin selection (5 μg/ml) for 14 days. Afterward, puromycin-resistant NMuMG and 4T1 cells were assayed for FAK-deficiency by immunoblotting with anti-FAK antibodies, as described later.
Immunoblot and immunoprecipitation assays
For FAK immunoblots, β3 integrin-expressing NMuMG cells were trypsinized, pelleted, and maintained in a nonadherent state for 4 h in serum-reduced media (0.5%). Afterward, the cells either were immediately harvested or were replated in the absence or presence of TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for an additional 4 h, at which point they were harvested to detect differences in FAK phosphorylation and expression by immunoblotting (see later). Whole-cell extracts prepared from normal and malignant MECs were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against TβR-II, Grb2, and β3 integrin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), and the resulting immunocomplexes were immunoblotted various antibodies listed later . Where specified, 4T1 cells were incubated for 18 h in the absence or presence of the FAK inhibitors, PF-562271 or PF-573228 (Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY) at the indicated concentrations before immunoprecipitation of β3 integrin. NMuMG cells also were incubated in serum-reduced media (0.5% FBS) supplemented with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 18 h in the absence or presence of the Src inhibitor, PP2 (10 μg/ml; Calbiochem, Temecula, CA). For all cell-signaling experiments, 4T1 or NMuMG cells were serum starved (0 FBS) or deprived (0.5% FBS), respectively, for 6 h before TGF-β1 stimulation (5 ng/ml). Control and FAK-deficient 4T1 cells were incubated for up to 48 hours with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and detergent-solubilized whole-cell extracts were prepared and immunoblotted for E-cadherin (E-Cad; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Last, 4T1 cells were incubated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 24 h in serum-free medium, and the resulting conditioned medium was precipitated with 0.01% sodium deoxycholate/6.25% trichloracetic acid and immunoblotted for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; Santa Cruz Biotechnology).
Cell extracts were prepared by harvesting NMuMG and 4T1 cells on ice in 3-D RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, 6 mM sodium deoxycholate, 1.0% NP-40, 0.1% SDS, pH 7.4) supplemented with protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and phosphatase inhibitors (10 mM sodium orthovanadate, 40 mM β-glycerophosphate, 20 mM NaF), and subsequently were clarified by microcentrifugation before immunoblotting with the following primary antibodies (dilution): (a) anti-phospho-Y397-FAK (1:1000; Cell Signaling, Danvers, MA); (b) anti-phospho-Y577-FAK (1:1000; Cell Signaling); (c) anti-phospho-Y925-FAK (1:1,000; Cell Signaling); (d) anti-phospho-p38 MAPK (1:500; Cell Signaling); (e) anti-phospho-Smad2 (1:1,000; Cell Signaling); (f) anti-phospho-Smad3 (1:500; Cell Signaling); (g) anti-E-cadherin (1:2,500 BD Biosciences); (h) anti-PAI-1 (1:1,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology); (i) anti-FAK (1:1,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology); (j) anti-β-actin (1:1,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology); (k) anti-p38 MAPK (1:1,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology); (l) anti-Smad2/3 (1:1,000; Cell signaling); (m) anti-phospho-Y416-Src (1:1,000; Cell Signaling); and (n) anti-Src (1:1,000, Cell Signaling).
Cell migration and invasion assays
Confluent NMuMG cell cultures were wounded with a micropipette tip (200 μl) and immediately placed in 1% serum-containing medium supplemented with or without TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) or the TβR-I inhibitor, SB-431542 (10 μM; Sigma). Bright-field images of wounded monolayers were obtained immediately after wounding (T0) and at various times thereafter as indicated. The extent of wound closure was quantified by obtaining three wound measurements for each of three random fields (x100) per wound, and all wound conditions were performed in triplicate. Measurements were taken by using the SlideBook Imaging Software (Intelligent Imaging Innovations, Inc., Denver, CO). The ability of TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) to alter the invasion of 4T1 cells (50,000 cells/well) was analyzed by using a modified Boyden Chamber assay, as described previously .
Luminescent reporter gene assays
Alterations in gene expression regulated by TGF-β were assessed by using a reporter gene assay that monitored changes in luciferase expression driven by the synthetic SBE (Smad-binding element) promoter, as described previously . In brief, NMuMG cells (25,000 to 30,000 cells/well) were allowed to adhere overnight to 24-well plates. The following morning, the cells were transiently transfected by overnight exposure to LT1-liposomes (Mirus, Madison, WI) that contained 300 ng/well of pSBE-luciferase cDNA and 50 ng/well of CMV-β-gal cDNA, which was used to control for differences in transfection efficiency. Afterward, the cells were washed twice with PBS and stimulated overnight with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) in serum-deprived (0.5% FBS) media. Upon completion of agonist stimulation, firefly luciferase and β-gal activities present in detergent-solubilized cell extracts were determined. In addition, 4T1-luciferase cells that stably expressed firefly luciferase under control of the CMV promoter were cultured into 96-well plates at a density of 10,000 cells/well and subsequently were transiently transfected with an SBE reporter plasmid that drove expression of renilla luciferase. The transfectants were stimulated with TGF-β1 as described previously, and subsequently were processed for the determination of renilla and firefly luciferase by using the Dual-Glo Assay System (Promega, Madison, WI).
Real-time PCR analyses
NMuMG and 4T1 cells were stimulated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 24 h, and total RNA was isolated by using the RNeasy Plus Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Afterward, total RNA was reverse transcribed by using the iScript cDNA Synthesis System (BioRad, Hercules, CA), and semiquantitative real-time PCR was conducted by using iQ SYBR Green (BioRad) according to the manufacture's recommendations and as described previously . In all cases, differences in RNA concentration were controlled by normalizing individual gene signals to their corresponding GAPDH RNA signals. The oligonucleotide primer pairs used are provided in Additional data file 1.
NMuMG cells (25,000 cells/well) were allowed to adhere overnight to glass coverslips in a 24-well plate. Afterward, the cells were washed extensively in PBS and immediately stimulated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) in serum-deprived (0.5% FBS) media for 18 h. Upon completion of agonist stimulation, the cells were (a) fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde; (b) permeablized in 0.1% Triton X-100; (c) stained with phospho-Y925 FAK antibodies according to the manufacture's instructions (Cell Signaling); and (d) visualized by using FITC-labeled donkey anti-rabbit secondary antibodies (Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, PA). The actin cytoskeleton was visualized by using TRITC-conjugated phalloidin (0.25 μM; Invitrogen) as described previously .
Tumor growth, bioluminescent imaging, and immunohistochemical analyses
where "x" is the tumor width and "y" is the tumor length. Finally, serial histologic sections of control and FAK-deficient 4T1 tumors removed after the study were stained with phospho-specific antibodies against p38 MAPK and Smad2 and counterstained with hematoxylin, as previously described . Where indicated, mice were treated daily with PF-562271 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (5% gelucire 44/14; Gattefosse, Saint Priest Cedex, France) by oral gavage. Histologic sections from these studies were stained with antibodies for the F4/80 macrophage marker (IHC Tech, Aurora, CO), or with phospho-specific antibodies against Y397-FAK, as described previously . All animal studies were performed in accordance with the animal protocol procedures approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of University of Colorado.
Statistical values were defined by using an unpaired Student's t-test; a P value <0.05 was considered significant. P values for all experiments analyzed are indicated.
TGF-β-stimulated FAK activation and stabilization is dependent on Src and β3integrin
FAK is critically involved in TGF-β-induced p38 MAPK activation and mammary epithelial cell migration
FAK is required for oncogenic signaling by TGF-β
To investigate the merits of this supposition, we compared the ability of control and FAK-deficient metastatic breast cancer cells to activate Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK in response to TGF-β. We found that FAK deficiency dramatically not only decreased basal p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but also completely abrogated the ability of TGF-β to activate p38 MAPK (Figure 3b). Interestingly, in contrast to what we observed in NMuMG cells (Figure 2a and 2b), the coupling of TGF-β to both Smad2 and Smad3 were also decreased in FAK-deficient 4T1 cells (Figures 3b and 3c). These data stress the increased dependence of metastatic breast cancer cells on FAK to facilitate not only noncanonical (p38 MAPK), but also canonical (Smad2/3) TGF-β signaling (Figure 3).
FAK expression and kinase activity are required for the aberrant formation of β3integrin:TβR-II signaling complexes
We next sought to address the mechanism by which FAK facilitates oncogenic TGF-β signaling. Previously, we observed β3 integrin to interact aberrantly with TβR-II , resulting in the promotion of MAPK signaling by TGF-β [17, 18]. Indeed, robust quantities of FAK were detected in β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes specifically in NMuMG cells engineered to overexpress β3 integrin (Figure 4a; ). Furthermore, the formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes was readily induced in NMuMG cells subsequent to their induction of EMT by TGF-β (Figure 4b; ). However, this same TGF-β treatment protocol failed to induce β3 integrin:TβR-II interaction in FAK-depleted NMuMG cells, as (a) β3 integrin immunocomplexes isolated from FAK-deficient NMuMG cells no longer included TβR-II, and (b) TβR-II immunocomplexes no longer included β3 integrin (Figure 4b). Moreover, whereas the formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes was dependent on EMT in NMuMG cells, these same complexes were observed to form constitutively in 4T1 cells (Figure 4c). Importantly, depleting FAK expression in 4T1 cells also reduced the interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II, as β3 integrin immunocomplexes isolated from FAK-deficient 4T1 cells no longer included TβR-II (Figure 4c). The formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes leads to Src-mediated phosphorylation of TβR-II on Y284, which coordinates the recruitment and binding of Grb2 to TβR-II . We now show that FAK deficiency prevented the interaction between TβR-II and Grb2, as Grb2 immunocomplexes isolated from FAK-depleted 4T1 cells no longer included TβR-II (Figure 4d).
Finally, we found that the PTK activity of FAK was absolutely required for the formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes, as treatment of 4T1 cells with an effective concentration (see Additional data file 3d) of FAK inhibitors (PF-562271 and PF-573228) similarly abolished the interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II (Figure 4e). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that FAK expression and activity are required for the formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II:Grb2 complexes (Figure 4) and, consequently, for the initiation of aberrant oncogenic TGF-β signaling (Figure 3).
FAK is critically involved in TGF-β-stimulated invasion of malignant MECs
More thoroughly to characterize the role of FAK in TGF-β1-induced EMT, we also examined a panel of EMT markers by real-time PCR. As shown in Figure 5c, the downregulation of the epithelial markers E-cad and cytokeratin-19, which are characteristic features of EMT induced by TGF-β, was effectively prevented by depletion of FAK. Most interestingly, with the exception of PAI-1, the upregulation of mesenchymal markers was not appreciably affected by FAK deficiency (Figure 5c). The maintenance of an epithelial gene-expression profile is consistent with the epithelial morphology of FAK-depleted 4T1 cells (Figure 5a), and is further supported by a recent study in hepatocytes showing that the expression of a dominant-negative FAK prevents the downregulation of epithelial gene expression without affecting the ability of TGF-β to induce mesenchymal gene expression .
Consistent with the switch of TGF-β from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter, we and others observed TGF-β to induce the invasion of breast cancer cells, a result that is not recapitulated by normal MECs [18, 30]. We therefore monitored the ability of control and FAK-deficient 4T1 cells to invade synthetic basement membranes in response to TGF-β. Figure 5d shows that whereas FAK-deficiency failed to affect the invasion of 4T1 cells induced by a nonspecific serum stimulus, this same cellular condition abrogated the ability of 4T1 cells to undergo enhanced invasion in response to TGF-β (Figure 5d). Previous findings by our laboratory established a model whereby constitutive expression of TβR-II increases the invasion of 4T1 cells . Importantly, depletion of FAK in "hypermetastatic" 4T1-TβR-II cells actually reversed the affects of TβR-II expression, as TβR-II-shFAK cells completely failed to invade to a serum stimulus (Figure 5e). Taken together, these data identify FAK as an essential player in mediating carcinoma cell EMT and invasion induced specifically by TGF-β.
FAK inhibition reduces breast cancer growth and metastasis
In contrast to tumor cell depletion of FAK, therapeutic administration of the FAK inhibitor, PF-562271, significantly decreased the growth of primary 4T1 tumors (Figure 6d). The reduction in 4T1 tumor growth likely reflects diminished PTK activity of FAK, as tumors from biopsies of mice treated with PF-562271 possessed significantly less phosphorylated FAK as compared with their vehicle-treated counterparts (see Additional data file 3e). Moreover, PF-562271 decreased pulmonary metastasis in a fashion highly reminiscent of that observed in tumors depleted in FAK expression (Figure 6e). The difference in primary tumor growth between FAK-depleted cells (Figure 6a) and systemic FAK inhibition by PF-562271 (Figure 6d) suggests that FAK plays an important role in governing the composition or activity or both of nontumor cells in the tumor microenvironment, including the potential recruitment of systemic cell populations required for optimal mammary tumor growth and progression. Accordingly, we observed 4T1 tumors to exhibit strong staining for the macrophage marker F4/80, a result that was not recapitulated with PF-562271 administration (Figure 6f). Thus, we show for the first time that, in addition to the critical roles FAK plays in directing carcinoma cell function and behavior, the PTK activity of FAK is also clearly required for regulating innate immunity within the microenvironments of developing and progressing mammary tumors.
Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that FAK activity can be inhibited chemotherapeutically as an effective two-pronged approach to reduce the growth and metastasis of breast cancers. Moreover, these results also show that amplified TGF-β signaling in breast cancer cells is capable of driving early tumor cell dissemination from the primary mammary tumor.
TGF-β is a principal player involved in suppressing mammary tumorigenesis by maintaining the composition of normal MEC microenvironments through its ability to inhibit the proliferation and survival of normal MECs [31, 32]. In stark contrast, mammary tumorigenesis has evolved a variety of mechanisms capable of subverting the tumor-suppressing functions of TGF-β and of conferring oncogenic and metastatic properties on this multifunctional cytokine [30, 33]. Along these lines, elevated FAK expression is observed in a variety of human cancers, including those of the lung , uterus , mouth , thyroid , colon , ovary , and, most notably, the breast [38, 40, 41]. Thus, upregulated expression of FAK is associated with the development and progression of human cancers. Accordingly, numerous models have shown that rendering breast cancer cells deficient in FAK inhibits their progression and the acquisition of metastatic phenotypes [10, 14, 15]. The data shown herein identify FAK as an essential member of oncogenic β3 integrin:TβR-II signaling complexes. FAK-deficiency not only prevented the physical interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II, but also abrogated oncogenic signaling by TGF-β and its ability to induce EMT, invasion, and systemic dissemination of breast cancer cells. Thus, FAK is a critical effector of metastasis stimulated by TGF-β in developing and progressing mammary tumors.
Recent data also suggest that FAK mediates in vitro TGF-β signaling and gene expression in fibroblasts , hepatocytes , and mesangial cells , further highlighting the biologic importance of this signaling and scaffolding molecule.
Through the use of the recently developed small-molecule inhibitors of FAK (i.e., PF-562271 and PF-573228), we specifically defined the PTK activity of FAK as being essential for mediating the formation of β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes. Moreover, therapeutic administration of PF-562271 reduced pulmonary metastasis in a manner reminiscent of that observed with total FAK depletion, suggesting that the PTK activity of FAK, as opposed to its scaffolding function, is the major aspect of the this molecule required for cellular metastasis. A clinically relevant finding of our study was that FAK clearly is required for the initiation of TGF-β signaling and its stimulation of EMT and invasion. More important, we showed for the first time that amplified TGF-β signaling through increased TβR-II expression  was sufficient in subverting the metastatic benefit of FAK chemotherapies, by using the same treatment protocol that was sufficient in reducing the metastasis of wild-type breast cancer cells. These data suggest that TGF-β drives cellular dissemination from the primary tumor and early metastatic lesion formation, processes that absolutely require FAK expression and PTK activity. This conclusion is wholly supported by recent independent studies showing that both FAK and TGF-β signaling are critically involved in these early steps of tumor dissemination, but not metastatic outgrowth [44, 45].
Mechanistically, we showed that FAK becomes activated with TGF-β-mediated induction of EMT, a process that is dependent on Src and β3 integrin (Figure 1). Moreover, we present data to suggest that TGF-β-stimulated upregulation of β3 integrin acts as a negative-feedback mechanism regulating the transcription not only of itself, but also that of FAK. Thus, these and our previous findings indicate that the transactivation of FAK and Src facilitates the interaction between β3 integrin and TβR-II, leading to phosphorylation of TβR-II at Y284  and its interaction with Grb-2 . Indeed, the formation of integrin:TβR-II complexes, as well as other signaling modules involving TGF-β receptors [47, 48], appears to be governed by a variety of protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications.
Overall, the formation of these aberrant complexes function to promote the oncogenic activities of TGF-β in developing and progressing breast cancers. Our findings also point to the importance of thoroughly defining the composition and function of these TGF-β signaling complexes in normal and metastatic cells. As such, we show here that β3 integrin:TβR-II complexes are present constitutively in metastatic MECs, but only form in normal MECs upon their induction of EMT. Accordingly, disruption of FAK decreases TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 activation and completely abrogates p38 MAPK stimulation in metastatic MECs, whereas FAK depletion in normal MECs only partially blocks TGF-β-induced p38 MAPK activation with no affect on Smad2/3 activity.
Clearly, these data demonstrate the increased dependence of metastatic breast cancer cells on FAK to facilitate oncogenic TGF-β signaling. Moreover, they suggest that targeting FAK and other constituents of the focal adhesion complex, such as integrins, p130Cas, talin, or paxillin, holds the potential to inactivate specifically the oncogenic activities of TGF-β in malignant MECs. Moreover, our findings suggest that the development and use of such a chemotherapeutic regimen would have little impact on altering the tumor-suppressor function of TGF-β in normal MECs.
A scientifically and medically important finding of this study was the difference noted between tumor cell depletion of FAK and systemic FAK inhibition by using PF-562271. We demonstrated a drastic diminution in primary tumor growth in control and TβR-II-expressing 4T1 cells after PF-562271 treatment. These data point to an important role for FAK in regulating the composition and behavior of breast cancer stroma, particularly the recruitment of bone marrow-derived and other systemic immune cells whose presence is critical for mammary tumorigenesis . To this end, we show a drastic reduction in tumor-infiltrating macrophages with FAK inhibition. Although a full characterization of the role for FAK in governing mammary stromal function clearly is warranted and currently is ongoing in our laboratory, the data presented here undoubtedly identify a novel tumor microenvironmental function for FAK that has yet to be fully appreciated.
In summary, we demonstrate that FAK is activated upon TGF-β-mediated induction of EMT in a manner that requires β3 integrin and Src, and that the PTK activity of FAK is required for the physical linkage between β3 integrin and TβR-II, thereby generating the formation of oncogenic TGF-β signaling complexes. Indeed, our findings establish FAK as an essential player that facilitates the oncogenic conversion of TGF-β in developing and progressing mammary tumors, leading to their acquisition of invasive and metastatic phenotypes in response to TGF-β. Finally, we provide compelling evidence that inhibiting the PTK activity of FAK or its expression is sufficient to reduce the overall metastatic burden of highly aggressive breast cancers, and more specifically, that amplified TGF-β signaling in these same tumors is capable of driving the earliest steps of primary tumor metastasis, processes that are critically dependent on FAK.
epidermal growth factor
focal adhesion kinase
fetal bovine serum
mitogen-activated protein kinase
mammary epithelial cell
plasminogen activator hnhibitor-1
plasmid murine stem cell virus
protein tyrosine kinase
short hairpin RNA
TGF-β receptor type I
TGF-β receptor type II
transforming growth factor
We thank Pfizer for graciously providing the novel small-molecule FAK inhibitors, PF-562271 and PF-573228. We thank the laboratory of Michael Dwinell for their part in constructing the 4T1-luciferase cells. Members of the Schiemann Laboratory are thanked for critical reading of the manuscript. Research support was provided in part by the National Institutes of Health (CA129359) and the Komen Foundation to WPS, and by the American Cancer Society (PF-09-120-01-CS) to MKW.
- Yoshida BA, Sokoloff MM, Welch DR, Rinker-Schaeffer CW: Metastasis-suppressor genes: a review and perspective on an emerging field. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000, 92: 1717-1730. 10.1093/jnci/92.21.1717.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wakefield LM, Piek E, Bottinger EP: TGF-β signaling in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2001, 6: 67-82. 10.1023/A:1009568532177.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buck MB, Knabbe C: TGF-β signaling in breast cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006, 1089: 119-126. 10.1196/annals.1386.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benson JR: Role of TGF-β in breast carcinogenesis. Lancet Oncol. 2004, 5: 229-239. 10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01426-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schiemann WP: Targeted TGF-β chemotherapies: friend or foe in treating human malignancies?. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2007, 7: 609-611. 10.1586/14737220.127.116.119.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van Nimwegen MJ, Water van de B: Focal adhesion kinase: a potential target in cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007, 73: 597-10.1016/j.bcp.2006.08.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- llic D, Furuta Y, Kanazawa S, Takeda N, Sobue K, Nakatsuji N, Nomura S, Fujimoto J, Okada M, Yamamoto T: Reduced cell motility and enhanced focal adhesion contact formation in cells from FAK-deficient mice. Nature. 1995, 377: 539-544. 10.1038/377539a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sieg DJ, Hauck CR, Schlaepfer DD: Required role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) for integrin-stimulated cell migration. J Cell Sci. 1999, 112: 2677-2691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim S-T, Chen XL, Lim Y, Hanson DA, Vo T-T, Howerton K, Larocque N, Fisher SJ, Schlaepfer DD, Ilic D: Nuclear FAK promotes cell proliferation and survival through FERM-enhanced p53 degradation. Mol Cell. 2008, 29: 9-22. 10.1016/j.molcel.2007.11.031.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pylayeva Y: Ras- and PI3K-dependent breast tumorigenesis in mice and humans requires focal adhesion kinase signaling. J Clin Invest. 2009, 119: 252-266.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Luo M, Fan H, Nagy T, Wei H, Wang C, Liu S, Wicha MS, Guan J-L: Mammary epithelial-specific ablation of the focal adhesion kinase suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by affecting mammary cancer stem/progenitor cells. Cancer Res. 2009, 69: 466-474. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3078.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mitra SK, Mikolon D, Molina JE, Hsia DA, Hanson DA, Chi A, Lim ST, Bernard-Trifilo JA, Ilic D, Stupack DG, Cheresh DA, Schlaepfer DD: Intrinsic FAK activity and Y925 phosphorylation facilitate an angiogenic switch in tumors. Oncogene. 2006, 25: 5969-5984. 10.1038/sj.onc.1209588.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roberts WG, Ung E, Whalen P, Cooper B, Hulford C, Autry C, Richter D, Emerson E, Lin J, Kath J, Coleman K, Yao L, Martinez-Alsina L, Lorenzen M, Berliner M, Luzzio M, Patel N, Schmitt E, LaGreca S, Jani J, Wessel M, Marr E, Griffor M, Vajdos F: Antitumor activity and pharmacology of a selective focal adhesion kinase inhibitor, PF-562,271. Cancer Res. 2008, 68: 1935-1944. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5155.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lahlou H, Sanguin-Gendreau V, Zuo D, Cardiff RD, McLean GW, Frame MC, Muller WJ: Mammary epithelial-specific disruption of the focal adhesion kinase blocks mammary tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007, 104: 20302-20307. 10.1073/pnas.0710091104.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mitra SK, Lim ST, Chi A, Schlaepfer DD: Intrinsic focal adhesion kinase activity controls orthotopic breast carcinoma metastasis via the regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator expression in a syngeneic tumor model. Oncogene. 2006, 25: 4429-4440. 10.1038/sj.onc.1209482.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Slack-Davis JK, Martin KH, Tilghman RW, Iwanicki M, Ung EJ, Autry C, Luzzio MJ, Cooper B, Kath JC, Roberts WG, Parson JT: Cellular characterization of a novel focal adhesion kinase inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 14845-14852. 10.1074/jbc.M606695200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galliher-Beckley AJ, Schiemann WP: Grb2 binding to Tyr284 in TβR-II is essential for mammary tumor growth and metastasis stimulated by TGF-β. Carcinogenesis. 2008, 29: 244-251. 10.1093/carcin/bgm245.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galliher AJ, Schiemann WP: Src phosphorylates Tyr284 in TGF-β type II receptor and regulates TGF-β stimulation of p38 MAPK during breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer Res. 2007, 67: 3752-3758. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3851.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galliher AJ, Schiemann WP: β3 Integrin and Src facilitate TGF-β mediated induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2006, 8: R42-10.1186/bcr1524.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wendt MK, Cooper AN, Dwinell MB: Epigenetic silencing of CXCL12 increases the metastatic potential of mammary carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2008, 27: 1461-1471. 10.1038/sj.onc.1210751.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zufferey R, Nagy D, Mandel RJ, Naldini L, Trono D: Multiply attenuated lentiviral vector achieves efficient gene delivery in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 1997, 15: 871-875. 10.1038/nbt0997-871.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neil JR, Schiemann WP: Altered TAB1:IκB kinase interaction promotes TGF-β-mediated NF-κB activation during breast cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2008, 68: 1462-1470. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-3094.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neil JR, Johnson KM, Nemenoff RA, Schiemann WP: COX-2 inactivates Smad signaling and enhances EMT stimulated by TGF-β through a PGE2-dependent mechanism. Carcinogenesis. 2008, 29: 2227-2235. 10.1093/carcin/bgn202.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miettinen PJ, Ebner R, Lopez AR, Derynck R: TGF-β induced transdifferentiation of mammary epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells: involvement of type I receptors. J Cell Biol. 1994, 127: 2021-2036. 10.1083/jcb.127.6.2021.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ciacci C, Lind SE, Podolsky DK: TGF-β regulation of migration in wounded rat intestinal epithelial monolayers. Gastroenterology. 1993, 105: 93-101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santner SJ, Dawson PJ, Tait L, Soule HD, Eliason J, Mohamed AN, Wolman SR, Heppner GH, Miller FR: Malignant MCF10CA1 cell lines derived from premalignant human breast epithelial MCF10AT cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001, 65: 101-110. 10.1023/A:1006461422273.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dawson PJ, Wolman SR, Tait L, Heppner GH, Miller FR: MCF10AT: a model for the evolution of cancer from proliferative breast disease. Am J Pathol. 1996, 148: 313-319.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wu L, Bernard-Trifilo JA, Lim Y, Lim ST, Mitra SK, Uryu S, Chen M, Pallen CJ, Cheung NK, Mikolon D, Mielgo A, Stupack DG, Schlaepfer DD: Distinct FAK-Src activation events promote α5β1 and α4β1 integrin-stimulated neuroblastoma cell motility. Oncogene. 2007, 27: 1439-1448. 10.1038/sj.onc.1210770.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cicchini C, Laudadio I, Citarella F, Corazzari M, Steindler C, Conigliaro A, Fantoni A, Amicone L, Tripodi M: TGF-β-induced EMT requires focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2008, 314: 143-152. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.09.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tang B, Vu M, Booker T, Santner SJ, Miller FR, Anver MR, Wakefield LM: TGF-β switches from tumor suppressor to prometastatic factor in a model of breast cancer progression. J Clin Invest. 2003, 112: 1116-1124.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blobe GC, Schiemann WP, Lodish HF: Role of TGF-β in human disease. N Engl J Med. 2000, 342: 1350-1358. 10.1056/NEJM200005043421807.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siegel PM, Massague J: Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-β in homeostasis and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003, 3: 807-821. 10.1038/nrc1208.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wakefield LM, Roberts AB: TGF-β signaling: positive and negative effects on tumorigenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002, 12: 22-29. 10.1016/S0959-437X(01)00259-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carelli S, Zadra G, Vaira V, Falleni M, Bottiglieri L, Nosotti M, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A, Bosari S: Up-regulation of focal adhesion kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006, 53: 263-271. 10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.06.001.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Livasy CA, Moore D, Cance WG, Lininger RA: Focal adhesion kinase overexpression in endometrial neoplasia. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2004, 12: 342-345.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kornberg LJ: Focal adhesion kinase expression in oral cancers. Head Neck. 1998, 20: 634-639. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0347(199810)20:7<634::AID-HED10>3.0.CO;2-M.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim SJ, Park JW, Yoon JS, Mok JO, Kim YJ, Park HK, Kim CH, Byun DW, Lee YJ, Jin SY, Suh KI, Yoo MH: Increased expression of focal adhesion kinase in thyroid cancer: immunohistochemical study. J Korean Med Sci. 2004, 19: 710-715.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cance WG, Harris JE, Iacocca MV, Roche E, Yang X, Chang J, Simkins S, Xu L: Immunohistochemical analyses of focal adhesion kinase expression in benign and malignant human breast and colon tissues: correlation with preinvasive and invasive phenotypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2000, 6: 2417-2423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Judson PL, He X, Cance WG, Van Le L: Overexpression of focal adhesion kinase, a protein tyrosine kinase, in ovarian carcinoma. Cancer. 1999, 86: 1551-1556. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991015)86:6<1551::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-P.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Watermann DO, Gabriel B, Jager M, Orlowska-Volk M, Hasenburg A, zur Hausen A, Gitsch G, Stickeler E: Specific induction of pp125 focal adhesion kinase in human breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005, 93: 694-698. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602744.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lightfoot HM, Lark A, Livasy CA, Moore DT, Cowan D, Dressler L, Craven RJ, Cance WG: Upregulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an early event in breast tumorigenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004, 88: 109-116. 10.1007/s10549-004-1022-8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu S, Shi-wen X, Kennedy L, Pala D, Chen Y, Eastwood M, Carter DE, Black CM, Abraham DJ, Leask A: FAK is required for TGF-β-induced JNK phosphorylation in fibroblasts: implications for acquisition of a matrix-remodeling phenotype. Mol Biol Cell. 2007, 18: 2169-2178. 10.1091/mbc.E06-12-1121.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayashida T, Wu M-H, Pierce A, Poncelet A-C, Varga J, Schnaper HW: MAP-kinase activity necessary for TGF-β-stimulated mesangial cell type I collagen expression requires adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397. J Cell Sci. 2007, 120: 4230-4240. 10.1242/jcs.03492.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Korpal M, Yan J, Lu X, Xu S, Lerit DA, Kang Y: Imaging TGF-β signaling dynamics and therapeutic response in breast cancer bone metastasis. Nat Med. 2009, 15: 960-966. 10.1038/nm.1943.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shibue T, Weinberg RA: Integrin β1-focal adhesion kinase signaling directs the proliferation of metastatic cancer cells disseminated in the lungs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009, 106: 10290-10295. 10.1073/pnas.0904227106.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura K, Yano H, Schaefer E, Sabe H: Different modes and qualities of tyrosine phosphorylation of Fak and Pyk2 during epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and cell migration: analysis of specific phosphorylation events using site-directed antibodies. Oncogene. 2001, 20: 2626-2635. 10.1038/sj.onc.1204359.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamashita M, Fatyol K, Jin C, Wang X, Liu Z, Zhang YE: TRAF6 mediates Smad-independent activation of JNK and p38 by TGF-β. Mol Cell. 2008, 31: 918-924. 10.1016/j.molcel.2008.09.002.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sorrentino A, Thakur N, Grimsby S, Marcusson A, von Bulow V, Schuster N, Zhang S, Heldin CH, Landstrom M: The type I TGF-β receptor engages TRAF6 to activate TAK1 in a receptor kinase-independent manner. Nat Cell Biol. 2008, 10: 1199-1207. 10.1038/ncb1780.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tlsty TD, Coussens LM: Tumor stroma and regulation of cancer development. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006, 1: 119-150. 10.1146/annurev.pathol.1.110304.100224.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.